Tangut Manuscripts with Tibetan Phonetic Glosses

British Library Or.12380/1842

IDP : British Library Or.12380/1842


Description

This is a single sheet of a Tangut Buddhist manuscript held at the British Library in London. It has the pressmark Or.12380/1842 (originally K.K.II.0234.k), and was collected by Aurel Stein from Khara-Khoto during his expedition to Central Asia of 1913–1916. It has been studied by Berthold Laufer (Stein1928) and Tai Chung Pui (TCP2008) [amongst others], and is available online at the International Dunhuang Project.

The sheet is in poor condition, with several parts of the text lost. In total there are fifteen surviving lines, each about 25 characters in length, although only a single line is complete with no missing characters. Only the edge of the Tangut text remains on the first line, and only the Tibetan glosses remain on the last line, so there are only 13 lines with both Tangut characters and Tibetan glosses surviving. There are a total of about 207 identifiable Tangut characters with Tibetan phonetic glosses, and a total of about 249 legible or partially legible Tibetan phonetic glosses.

The Tangut text is written in a somewhat cursive hand with some simplifications of strokes, so that some characters are not easy to identify. In contrast the Tibetan phonetic glosses are written in a relatively neat, cursive, headless script, and are generally legible where undamaged. The large gap between each line of Tangut text seems to have been deliberately provided for the Tibetan transcription, and the colour of the ink is the same for the Tangut and Tibetan texts, so it is reasonable to assume that the Tibetan transcription was made at the same time as the Tangut text was written, although the two scripts would have been written by different scribes.


Transcription

Position TCP2008 Tangut Tibetan Note
Character LFW2008 Reading Stein
1928
TCP2008 BabelStone
01:01 170101 ? [1]
01:02 170102 ?
01:03 170103 ?
01:04 170104 ?
01:05 170105 ?
01:06 170106 ?
01:07 170107 ?
01:08 170108 ?
01:09 170109 ?
01:10 170110 ?
01:11–24
02:01 170201 L1290 L1290 tsew gtso g‑tsiv གཙིའ gtsi' གཙིའ
02:02 170202 L3195 L3195 gjwi bgye b‑gyi བགྱི bgyi བགྱི
02:03 170203 L0508 L0508 ŋwu du ngu ངུ ngu ངུ
02:04 170204 L5993 L5993 kha kʽra khha ཁྷ kh+ha ཁྷ
02:05 170205 L1364 L1364 ŋa dṅa d‑ngav དངའ dnga' དངའ
02:06 170206 L2698 L2698 tsji̱r rtse rtse རྩེ rtse རྩེ
02:07 170207 L1278 L1278 ·jɨ g‑yi g‑yi གཡི g.yi གཡི
02:08 170208 L3583 L3583 tja ta ta ta
02:09 170209 L0015 L0015 ɣjɨ̣ rgi rgi རྒི rgi རྒི
02:10 170210 L3830 L3830 njij ne ne ནེ ne ནེ
02:11 170211 L1364 L1364 ŋa da ngav ངའ nga' ངའ
02:12 170212 ?e je' ཇེའ
02:13–25
03:01 170301 ?u [?]u
03:02 170302 ? g‑yi g‑yi གཡི g.yi གཡི
03:03 170303 L3583 L3583 tja ba ta ta
03:04 170304 L1771 L1771 sjịj gse g‑sev གསེའ gse' གསེའ
03:05 170305 L1364 L1364 ŋa dṅa d‑ngav དངའ dnga' དངའ
03:06 170306 L3852 L3852 dźjij gdže g‑jev གཇེའ gje' གཇེའ [2]
03:07 170307 L1139 L1139 ·jij ye ye ཡེ ye ཡེ
03:08 170308 L1278 L1278 ·jɨ g‑yi g‑yi གཡི g.yi གཡི
03:09 170309 L5354 L5354 thjɨ tʽe thi ཐི thi ཐི
03:10 170310 L1100 L1100 tshja čʽo tsha tsha
03:11 170311 L1546 L1546 ljụ lu l? lu ལུ
03:12–25
04:01 170401
04:02 170402 ?
04:03 170403 L5057 L5057 ɣiej dge d‑ge དགེ dge དགེ
04:04 170404 L2698 L2698 tsji̱r rtse rtse རྩེ rtse རྩེ
04:05 170405 L1364 L1364 ŋa dṅa d‑ngav དངའ dnga' དངའ
04:06 170406 L0508 L0508 ŋwu du ngu ངུ ngu ངུ
04:07 170407 ? dz? dza
04:08 170408 dmi d‑mi དམི dmi དམི
04:09 170409 ? ?o [?]o
04:10 170410 ? gsa g‑??v ག◌འ g[?]' ག◌འ
04:11 170411 L0930 L0930 dju ạdu v‑duv འདུའ 'du' འདུའ
04:12 170412 L1139 L1139 ·jij ye ye ཡེ ye ཡེ
04:13 170413 L0369 L0369 thju̱ tʽu thu ཐུ thu ཐུ
04:14 170414 L5880 L5880 ŋwu du ngu ངུ ngu ངུ
04:15 170415 L5215 L5215 wjɨ̣ dgu d‑?? ད◌ d.wa ? དཝ
04:16 170416 L0290 L0290 sju zu z? zu ཟུ
04:17 170417 L1100 L1100 tshja ? tsha
04:18 170418 L1546 L1546 ljụ lu lu ལུ lu ལུ
04:19 170419 L1326 L1326 kjɨ ki ki ཀི ki ཀི
04:20 170420 L4184 L4184 śja
04:21 170421 L3180 L3180 zjịj
04:22 170422 L2019 L2019 thja
04:23 170423 L5815 L5815 tsjɨ
04:24 170424 ?
04:25
05:01 170501
05:02 170502
05:03 170503 L0508 L0508 ŋwu du ngu ངུ
05:04 170504 L2484 L2484 ? nio̱w gšu g‑nu གནུ gnu གནུ
05:05 170505 L1245 L1245 ·jij gaṅ g‑ye གཡེ g.[?]e ག​ེ
05:06 170506 L2698 L2698 tsji̱r rtso rtse རྩེ rtse རྩེ
05:07 170507 L1546 L1546 ljụ du lu ལུ
05:08 170508 L0508 L0508 ŋwu če? ngu ངུ ngu ངུ
05:09 170509 L0322 L0322 tśhjwo čʽo chov ཆོའ cho' ཆོའ
05:10 170510 L4797 L4797 ·jwɨr dčʽid d‑wir དཝིར d.wir དཝིར
05:11 170511 L5993 L5993 kha kʽra khha ཁྷ kh+ha ཁྷ
05:12 170512 L0638 L0638 njij gše g‑nev གནེའ gne' གནེའ
05:13 170513 L5057 L5057 ɣiej dgre d‑ghe དགྷེ dgyue ? དགྱེུ [3]
05:14 170514 L2753 L2753 lhe̱w sde lhi ལྷི lhi ལྷི
05:15 170515 L1278 L1278 ·jɨ g‑yi g‑yiv གཡིའ g.yi' གཡིའ [4]
05:16 170516 L3133 L3133 sjij gse g‑sev གསེའ gse' གསེའ
05:17 170517 L2736 L2736 bia̱ ạbar v‑bar འབར 'bar འབར
05:18 170518 L3691 L3691 war kʽo wa wa
05:19 170519 L0998 L0998 dzji̱j dze dzev ཛེའ dze' ཛེའ
05:20 170520 L5815 L5815 tsjɨ rtse tsi ཙི tsi ཙི
05:21 170521 L2019 L2019 thja ža tha tha
05:22 170522 L0290 L0290 sju zu zu ཟུ zu ཟུ
05:23 170523 ? dmi dmi དམི dmi དམི
05:24–25
06:01–08
06:09 170601 ? la m? [?]
06:10 170602 L4713 L4713 rjur gdu g‑ruv གརུའ g.ru' གརུའ
06:11 170603 L2763 L2763 ɣu rmu rgu རྒུ rgu རྒུ
06:12 170604 L0433 L0433 bju ạbru v‑bu འབུ 'bu འབུ
06:13 170605 L0752 L0752 tśja ba ca ca
06:14 170606 L5771 L5771 tshwew ạtsʽo b‑tshi བཚི btshi བཚི
06:15 170607 L0535 L0535 śjij že zhe ཞེ zhe ཞེ
06:16 170608 L3583 L3583 tja ta ta ta
06:17 170609 L5865 L5865 sọ gso g‑sov གསོའ gso' གསོའ
06:18 170610 L4713 L4713 rjur dru ru རུ ru རུ
06:19 170611 L4719 L4719 kiẹj dkre d‑kye དཀྱེུ dkyue ? དཀྱེུ [5]
06:20 170612 L0724 L0724 njɨ ni ni ནི ni ནི
06:21 170613 L4027 L4027 njɨ̱ gši g‑ni གནི gni གནི
06:22 170614 L3195 L3195 gjwi bkyi b‑gyi བགྱི bgyi བགྱི
06:23 170615 du ngu ངུ ngu ངུ
06:24 do [?]i
06:25
07:01 170701 L0467 L0467 tsji̱r rtsa rc? རྕ rtse རྩེ
07:02 170702 L1546 L1546 ljụ su lu ལུ lu ལུ
07:03 ?
07:04 ?
07:05 ?
07:06
07:07
07:08
07:09
07:10
07:11 ?
07:12 170703 ? du ngu ངུ ngu ངུ
07:13 170704 L5993 L5993 kha kʽra khha ཁྷ kh+ha ཁྷ
07:14 170705 ? šo ? b‑?ov བ​ོའ b[?]o' བ​ོའ
07:15 170706 L3735 L3735 tjị sde sti སྟི sti སྟི
07:16 170707 L0433 L0433 bju ạbru v‑bu འབུ 'bu འབུ
07:17 170708 L3469 L3469 sjij gse g‑sev གསེའ gse' གསེའ
07:18 170709 L0930 L0930 dju ạdu v‑duv འདུའ 'du' འདུའ
07:19 170710 L1918 L1918 mji dmi d‑mi དམི dmi དམི
07:20 170711 L2180 L2180 dźjɨ̱r gdži g‑jiv གཇིའ gji' གཇིའ
07:21 170712 L2484 L2484 nio̱w gšu g‑nu གནུ gnu གནུ
07:22 170713 L1546 L1546 ljụ lu lu ལུ lu ལུ
07:23 170714 g‑ye g‑ye གཡེ g.ye གཡེ
07:24 170715 bi ?i ni ནི
07:25
08:01 170801 ? tʽa tha tha
08:02 170802 ? zu zuv ཟུའ zu' ཟུའ
08:03 170803 L0467 L0467 tsji̱r rtse rtse རྩེ rtse རྩེ
08:04 170804 L1546 L1546 ljụ lu luv ལུའ lu' ལུའ
08:05 170805 L3200 L3200 tśhjiw čʽe chiv ཆིའ chi' ཆིའ
08:06 170806 L5865 L5865 sọ gso g‑sov གསོའ gso' གསོའ
08:07 170807 L4713 L4713 rjur su ?u [?]u [6]
08:08 170808 ?‑ge ◌གེ dge དགེ
08:09 ?
08:10 ?
08:11 170809 L0724 L0724 njɨ še ni ནི ni ནི
08:12 170810 L0930 L0930 dju ạdra v‑?? འ◌ 'du' འདུའ
08:13 170811
08:14 170812 L4713 L4713 rjur gdu g‑ru གརུ g.[?]u ག​ུ
08:15 170813 L2763 L2763 ɣu rmu rgu རྒུ rgu རྒུ
08:16 170814 L0433 L0433 bju ạbru v‑bu འབུ 'bu འབུ
08:17 170815 L0752 L0752 tśja ba cav ཅའ ca' ཅའ
08:18 170816 L5771 L5771 tshwew btsʽo b‑tshiv བཚིའ btshi' བཚིའ
08:19 170817 L5645 L5645 tjị sde sti སྟི sti སྟི
08:20 170818 L0508 L0508 ŋwu du ngu ངུ ngu ངུ
08:21 170819 L4797 L4797 ·jwɨr dkʽid d‑wir དཝིར d.wir དཝིར
08:22 170820 L5993 L5993 kha kʽra khha ཁྷ kh+ha ཁྷ
08:23 170821 L0015 L0015 ɣjɨ̣ rgi rgi རྒི rgi རྒི
08:24 170822 L3830 L3830 njij še ne ནེ ne ནེ
09:01 170901 ? žaṅ zh?v ཞའ zha' ཞའ
09:02 170902 ? du ngu ངུ ngu ངུ
09:03
09:04
09:05
09:06 d[?]
09:07 170903 ? ? d‑wi དཝི d.wi དཝི [7]
09:08 170904 ? ? tha [8]
09:09 170905 L3183 L3183 wo ? wo ? ཝོ [9]
09:10 170906 L5771 L5771 tshwew btsʽo b‑tshi བཚི btshi བཚི
09:11 170907 L5645 L5645 tjị ste sti སྟི sti སྟི
09:12 170908 L4024 L4024 zjɨ̣ bro ziv ཟིའ zi' ཟིའ
09:13 170909 L0089 L0089 tśhja̱ ? cha cha' ཆའ
09:14 170910 L4481 L4481 śjɨ šo shi ཤི shi ཤི
09:15 170911 L5285 L5285 ljɨ si li ལི li ལི
09:16 170912 L4027 L4027 njɨ̱ gšo g‑ni གནི gni གནི
09:17 170913 L3735 L3735 tjị sto sti སྟི sti སྟི
09:18 170914 L0009 L0009 śjwo šo sho ཤོ sho ཤོ
09:19 170915 L5390 L5390 phie či phi ཕི phi ཕི
09:20 170916 L5612 L5612 tshji̱j tsʽe tshe ཚེ tshe ཚེ
09:21 170917 L0535 L0535 śjij še she ཤེ she ཤེ
09:22 170918 L5612 L5612 tshji̱j tsʽe tshe ཚེ tshe ཚེ
09:23 170919 L3583 L3583 tja ta ta ta
09:24 170920 L4797 L4797 ·jwɨr dčʽid d‑wir དཝིར d.wir དཝིར
09:25 170921 L2612 L2612 phju tso phov ཕོའ pho' ཕོའ
10:01 171001 L0998 L0998 dzji̱j ? '[?]
10:02 171002 L3756 L3756 twẹ ? b[?]
10:03 171003 Tangut Iteration Mark L3756 twẹ ? b[?]
10:04 171004 L5981 L5981 ·a ?
10:05 171005 L0837 L0837 lja̱ sda lda ལྡ lda ལྡ
10:06 171006 L0508 L0508 ŋwu du ngu ངུ ngu ངུ
10:07 171007 L1801 L1801 dzjij ạdza v‑dz? འཛ 'dze འཛེ
10:08 171008 L1045 L1045 dạ dru dha དྷ dha དྷ
10:09 171009 L5354 L5354 thjɨ tʽo thi ཐི thi ཐི
10:10 171010 L0290 L0290 sju zu zu ཟུ zu ཟུ
10:11 171011 L0752 L0752 tśja tsa cav ཅའ ca' ཅའ
10:12 171012 L5771 L5771 tshwew ạtsʽo b‑tshiv བཚིའ btshi' བཚིའ
10:13 171013 L1906 L1906 nio̱w gšu g‑nu གནུ gnu གནུ
10:14 171014 L5688 L5688 wa kʽa wa [?]
10:15 171015 ? dmo d‑wo དཝོ d.wo དཝོ [10]
10:16 171016 L1101 L1101 ·jij g‑ye g‑yi གཡི g.yie ? གཡིེ [11]
10:17 171017 L1278 L1278 ·jɨ g‑yi g‑yi གཡི g.yi གཡི
10:18 171018 L1542 L1542 ku bku b‑ku བཀུ bku བཀུ
10:19 171019 L4625 L4625 mji̱j bde me མེ me མེ
10:20 171020 L3195 L3195 gjwi bgyi b‑gyi བགྱི bgyi བགྱི
10:21 171021 L5993 L5993 kha kʽru khha ཁྷ kh+ha ཁྷ
10:22 171022 L5390 L5390 phie či phiv ཕིའ phi' ཕིའ
10:23 171023 L5632 L5632 tshjɨ tsʽe tshe ཚེ tshe ཚེ
10:24 171024 L2098 L2098 ŋa ? d[?]' ད◌འ
10:25 171025 L1278 L1278 ·jɨ g‑yi g‑yi གཡི g.yi' གཡིའ
11:01 171101 L5688 L5688 wa kʽo wa wa
11:02 171102 L5390 L5390 phie čo phi ཕི phi ཕི
11:03 171103 L5632 L5632 tshjɨ tsʽe tshe ཚེ tshe ཚེ
11:04 171104 L4601 L4601 nja ša na na [12]
11:05 171105 L1278 L1278 ·jɨ g‑yi g‑yi གཡི g.yi གཡི
11:06 171106 L1542 L1542 ku bku v‑ku འཀུ bku བཀུ
11:07 171107 L5865 L5865 sọ gso g‑sov གསོའ gso' གསོའ
11:08 171108 L1290 L1290 tsew tsa tsa tsa
11:09 171109 L3195 L3195 gjwi bgo b‑gyi བགྱི bgyi བགྱི
11:10 171110 L1770 L1770 lhjwi blti b‑lhiv བལྷིའ b.lhi' བལྷིའ
11:11 171111 L0015 L0015 ɣjɨ̣ rgo rgi རྒི rgi རྒི
11:12 171112 L3830 L3830 njij še ne ནེ ne ནེ
11:13 171113 L5795 L5795 mjɨ mu mu མུ mu མུ
11:14 171114 L2753 L2753 lhe̱w sde lhi ལྷི lhi ལྷི
11:15 171115 L0092 L0092 mja ma ma ma
11:16 171116 L1139 L1139 ·jij ye ye ཡེ ye ཡེ
11:17 171117 L0105 L0105 kjụ rku rkyu རྐྱུ rkyu རྐྱུ
11:18 171118 L0535 L0535 śjij še she ཤེ she ཤེ
11:19 171119 L3974 L3974 tshji̱ tsʽi tshi ཚི tshi ཚི
11:20 171120 L2098 L2098 ŋa da nga nga
11:21 171121 ? g‑yi g‑ye གཡེ g.yi གཡི
11:22 171122 še ?‑ne ◌ནེ ne ནེ
11:23 [?]i
11:24
12:01 171201 L5621 L5621 lhu bsdus b‑lhuv བལྷུའ b.lhu' བལྷུའ
12:02 171202 L5040 L5040 kia̱ bkaṅ b‑kar བཀར bkar བཀར
12:03 171203 L1045 L1045 dạ dra dha དྷ dha དྷ
12:04 171204 L3527 L3527 mja ma ma ma
12:05 171205 L0508 L0508 ŋwu du ngu ངུ ngu ངུ
12:06 171206 L1278 L1278 ·jɨ g‑yi g‑yi གཡི g.yi གཡི
12:07 171207 L1542 L1542 ku bku b‑ku བཀུ bku བཀུ
12:08 171208 L0100 L0100 lew kli kli ཀླི kli ཀླི
12:09 171209 L1290 L1290 tsew tsi tsi ཙི tsi ཙི
12:10 171210 L3195 L3195 gjwi bgyi b‑gyi བགྱི bgyi བགྱི
12:11 171211 L5880 L5880 ŋwu du ngu ངུ ngu ངུ
12:12 171212 L3027 L3027 kụ bkus b‑kuv བཀུའ bku' བཀུའ
12:13 171213 L2612 L2612 phju čo pho ཕོ pho ཕོ
12:14 171214 L0998 L0998 dzji̱j ạdze v‑dze འཛེ 'dze འཛེ
12:15 171215 L3756 L3756 twẹ btos b‑tiv བཏིའ bti' བཏིའ
12:16 171216 Tangut Iteration Mark L3756 twẹ ạdos b‑tiv བཏིའ bti' བཏིའ
12:17 171217 L5379 L5379 tśjɨ gtsos g‑civ གཅིའ gtsi' གཙིའ
12:18 171218 L1278 L1278 ·jɨ g‑yi g‑yi གཡི g.yi གཡི
12:19 171219 L1319 L1319 tshji tsʽi tshi ཚི tshi ཚི
12:20 171220 L4902 L4902 ŋwu̱ du ngu ངུ ngu ངུ
12:21 171221 ? du ngu ངུ ngu ངུ
12:22‍–25
13:01 171301 L5880 L5880 ŋwu pe ngu ངུ ngu ངུ
13:02 171302 L1332 L1332 de̱j ạdre v‑dhe འདྷེ 'dhe འདྷེ
13:03 171303 L2098 L2098 ŋa da nga nga
13:04 171304 L1278 L1278 ·jɨ yi ?‑yi ?ཡི g.yi གཡི
13:05 171305 L0441 L0441 sjwɨ bsu b‑su བསུ bsu བསུ
13:06 171306 L5447 L5447 do dro dho དྷོ dho དྷོ
13:07 171307 ? ? [?]i
13:08 171308 L4601 L4601 nja ? na
13:09 171309 L1278 L1278 ·jɨ ga g‑?? ག◌ g.[?]
13:10 171310 L1542 L1542 ku bku b‑ku བཀུ bku བཀུ
13:11 171311 L0100 L0100 lew klo kli ཀླི kli ཀླི
13:12 171312 L5932 L5932 dmu d‑mu དམུ dmu དམུ
13:13 171313 L3574 L3574 tsjij tse tse ཙེ tse ཙེ
13:14 171314 L3818 L3818 mjijr dme rme རྨེ rme རྨེ
13:15 171315 L1278 L1278 ·jɨ yi yi ཡི yi ཡི
13:16 171316 L5981 L5981 ·a la ·a a
13:17 171317 L3195 L3195 gjwi bgye b‑gyi བགྱི bgyi བགྱི
13:18 171318 L5612 L5612 tshji̱j čʽo tshe ཚེ tshe ཚེ
13:19 171319 L5354 L5354 thjɨ tʽe thi ཐི thi ཐི
13:20 171320 L3183 L3183 wo kʽo wo ཝོ wo ཝོ
13:21 171321 L5612 L5612 tshji̱j tsʽe tshe ཚེ tshe ཚེ
13:22 171322 ? še she ཤེ she ཤེ
13:23 dam ? [?]
13:24–25
14:01
14:02
14:03
14:04 [?]dz[?]
14:05 tshe ཚེ
14:06
14:07 '[?]e འ​ེ
14:08
14:09 ?
14:10 171401 L3583 L3583 tja ta ta ta
14:11 171402 L0100 L0100 lew klo kli ཀླི kli ཀླི
14:12 171403 ? du ngu ངུ ngu ངུ [13]
14:13 171404 L5414 L5414 rejr de rev རེའ re' རེའ
14:14 171405 L2541 L2541 dzjwo ạdžo b‑dzo བཛོ bdzo བཛོ
14:15 171406 L1139 L1139 ·jij dpe ye ཡེ ye ཡེ
14:16 171407 L1918 L1918 mji dmi d‑mi དམི dmi དམི
14:17 171408 L1332 L1332 de̱j ạdre v‑dhev འདྷེའ 'dhe' འདྷེའ
14:18 171409 L5113 L5113 wji dtsʽo d‑wi དཝི d.wi དཝི
14:19 171410 L2484 L2484 nio̱w ša nu ནུ
14:20 171411 L0322 L0322 tśhjwo ? [?]o
14:21 ?
14:22–25
15:01–09
15:10 pa [?]u
15:11 171501 sde ldi ལྡི ldi ལྡི
15:12 171502 ? mi མི mi མི
15:13 171503 ạdža ?‑zav ◌ཟའ 'ja' འཇའ
15:14 171504 ča phav ཕའ pha' ཕའ
15:15 171505 tse tsi ཙི tsi ཙི
15:16 171506 kʽo wo ཝོ wo ཝོ
15:17 171507 ạdus v‑duv འདུའ 'du' འདུའ
15:18 171508 tʽe che ཆེ the ཐེ
15:19 171509 bsu b‑su བསུ bsu བསུ
15:20 171510 li ?iv ིའ li' ལིའ
15:21–25

Notes

  1. Only the left edge of the Tangut text survives for the first line, but not enough to identify the characters with certainty.
  2. Tai Chung Pui reads the Tangut character as L0762 "wheel", whereas I read it as L3852 "to go".
  3. Tai Chung Pui reads the Tibetan gloss as dghe དགྷེ, but the subscript letter is more curved than the subscript letter h elsewhere in this particular manuscript, and it is identical to the subscript letter discussed in Note 5 which cannot plausibly be a subscript h. I therefore tentatively read it as a subscript letter y with a u vowel (i.e. dgyue དགྱེུ). Cf. Note 5.
  4. The final letter 'a of the Tibetan gloss is oddly separate from the initial g.yi, as if it does not belong to the gloss.
  5. Tai Chung Pui transcribes the Tibetan gloss as dkye (i.e. དཀྱེ), but writes the Tibetan as དཀྱེུ (i.e. dkyue). I concur with the latter interpretation that the h-shaped letter is a subscript letter y with a u vowel. Cf. Note 3.
  6. The expected reading for the Tibetan gloss is ru, but the actual gloss looks more like lu, although it is not possible to be certain due to manuscript damage at this point.
  7. The Tangut character is damaged, but should be identifiable; however I have not been able to do so. The manuscript is torn at this point, and I think that dwi on the other side of the tear is the corresponding Tibetan gloss, but it may actually be the gloss below (i.e. tha).
  8. The Tangut character is damaged, but should be identifiable; however I have not been able to do so. The manuscript is torn at this point, and I think that tha on the other side of the tear is the corresponding Tibetan gloss, but it may actually be the lost gloss below tha.
  9. The Tibetan gloss is damaged and uncertain, but based on the Tangut reading I suspect that it is wo.
  10. The Tangut character is clear and legible, but I cannot identify it as written, and Tai Chung Pui does not provide an identification either.
  11. The Tibetan gloss has both an i and an e vowel sign, which is probably a mistake caused by the scribe first writing g.ye or g.yi, and then correcting it to g.yi or g.ye.
  12. Tai Chung Pui reads the Tangut character as L4602 "eight".
  13. The Tangut character is damaged, but should be identifiable; however I have not been able to do so.


References



Published: 2011-12-11. Last modified: 2011-12-24.


Tangut Manuscripts with Tibetan Phonetic Glosses

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