Manchu Unicode Test Page


Introduction

This page comprises a short extract from a Manchu text encoded in Unicode, that is intended to be used as a test for Unicode fonts that support the set of Manchu characters encoded in the Mongolian block. In order to view the Manchu text you must have an appropriate Unicode Mongolian font installed. Furthermore, proper shaping and joining behaviour may only occur if your operating system actively supports the Mongolian script. Microsoft Vista includes a Mongolian font (Mongolian Baiti) and provides rendering support for Mongolian by means of its Uniscribe complex script rendering engine (USP10.dll).



Font Configuration

If you are using Internet Explorer and you are unable to change fonts using the form below, try this page instead (but vertical left-to-right layout will not work with IE8).


Font Name   Font Size
Mongolian Baiti (included with Microsoft Vista)
Code2000
Daicing Bible
Daicing Harmony *
Daicing Round *
Daicing White *
Daicing Xiaokai *
SimSun-1830
Other : (e.g. "My Manchu Font")

*The Daicing Manchu fonts are included in the Daicing Pack. You are strongly advised not to install the "full pack" as it attempts to replace USP10.dll (Uniscribe), but this sometimes fails, resulting in serious destabilization of the system. Instead either install the "lite pack" or extract the fonts directly from the "Daicing_Pack_Lite.exe" file using a utility such as 7-Zip.
 
8 points
10 points
12 points
16 points
20 points
24 points
36 points
48 points
72 points
Other : (e.g. "144")


Sample Text

Horizontal   Vertical
ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ   ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ


Ilan Guran i Bithe

This is the first page of the bilingual Manchu-Chinese edition of the Manchu translation of the famous Chinese historical novel The Romance of the Three Kingdoms [Sanguo Yanyi 三國演義], entitled Ilan Guran-i Bithe ᡳᠯᠠᠨ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ᡳ ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ in Manchu.

The Manchu translation of The Three Kingdoms was completed in 1650, and this edition was published during the Yongzheng period (1723-1735). See my essay The Textual History of Sanguo Yanyi : The Manchu Translation for further details. Note that the interlinear Chinese text is neither a retranslation of the Manchu text, nor the source for the Manchu translation, but has been imported from the Li Zhuowu commentary edition of the novel.

The facsimile is from a reprint of a copy of the book held at the Bibliothéque Nationale in Paris, and published under the title A Manchu Edition of Ilan-gurun-i bithe [滿文三國志] (San Fransisco : Chinese Materials Center, 1979).



Facsimile of Text



Vertical Left-to-Right Layout

This is the correct orientation and layout direction for Manchu text, produced using the CSS writing-mode : tb-lr style. This layout is currently only supported in Internet Explorer version 8.


   ᠠᠪᡴᠠ ᠨᠠ ᡩᡝ ᠸᡝᠴᡝᠮᡝ ᡨᠣᠣᡵᠣ ᠶᠠᡶᠠᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠵᡠᡵᡤᠠᠨ ᡳ ᡥᠠᠵᡳᠯᠠᡥᠠ᠉
    祭天地桃園結義
ᠠᠮᠠᡤᠠ ᡥᠠᠨ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ᡳ ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠨᡨᡳ ᡠᡵᡳᡥᡝ ᠮᠠᠩᡤᡳ᠈ ᠵᡠᡳ ᠯᡳᠩᡩᡳ ᠰᠣᠣᡵᡳᠨ ᡩᡝ
後漢桓帝崩。         子靈帝即位。
ᡨᡝᡥᡝ᠉ ᡨᡝᡵᡝ ᡶᠣᠨᡩᡝ ᠵᡠᠸᠠᠨ ᠵᡠᠸᡝ ᠰᡝ ᠪᡳᡥᡝ᠉ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠠᠮᠪᠠ ᠵᡳᠶᠠᠩᠵᡳᠶᡡᠨ
    時年十二歲。    朝廷有大將軍
ᡩᡝᠣ ᡠ᠈ ᡨᠠᡳᡶᡠ ᡥᠠᡶᠠᠨ ᠴᡝᠨ ᡶᠠᠨ᠈ ᠰᡟᡨᡠ ᡥᠠᡶᠠᠨ ᡥᡡ ᡤᡠᠸᠠᠩ ᠪᡳᡶᡳ
竇武  太傅陳蕃。司徒胡廣三人。
ᡳᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠣᡶᡳ ᡠᡥᡝᡳ ᡥᠠᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠯᠠᠮᠪᡳ᠉ ᠪᠣᠯᠣᡵᡳ ᡠᠶᡠᠨ ᠪᡳᠶᠠ ᡩᡝ᠈ ᡮᠣᠣ
    共相輔佐。     至秋九月。中涓曹節
ᠵᡳᠶᡝᡳ᠈ ᠸᠠᠩ ᡶᡠ ᡤᡝᠪᡠᠩᡤᡝ ᠵᡠᠸᡝ ᡨᠠᡳᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᡨᠣᠣᠰᡝ ᠪᡝ ᠵᠠᡶᠠᡶᡳ᠈ ᠮᡠᠵᡳᠯᡝᠨ ᡳ
  王甫弄權任意使為。
ᠴᡳᡥᠠᡳ ᠶᠠᠪᡠᡵᡝ ᠪᡝ᠈ ᡩᡝᠣ ᡠ᠈ ᠴᡝᠨ ᡶᠠᠨ ᠸᠠᡴᡳ ᠰᡝᠮᡝ ᡥᡝᠪᡝᡩᡝᡶᡳ᠈ ᡥᡝᠪᡝ ᠪᡝ
       竇武陳蕃預謀誅之。機事不密。
ᠨᠠᡵᡥᡡᡧᠠᡥᠠᡴᡡ ᠣᡶᡳ᠈ ᠵᡠᠸᡝ ᡨᠠᡳᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠸᠠᠪᡠᡥᠠ᠉ ᡨᡝᡵᡝᠴᡳ ᡨᠠᡳᡤᡳᠠᠨᠰᠠ
         被二中涓所害。中涓自此得權。
ᡨᠣᠣᠰᡝ ᠪᡝ ᡝᠵᡝᠯᡝᡥᡝ᠈ ᠵᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᡳᠩ ᠨᡳ ᠵᠠᡳ ᠠᠨᡳᠶᠠ ᡩᡠᡳᠨ ᠪᡳᠶᠠᡳ ᡨᠣᡶᠣᡥᠣᠨ ᡩᡝ
      建寧二年四月十五日。
ᡥᠠᠨ ᡤᡝᡵᡝᠨ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᡝ ᡳᠰᠠᠪᡠᡶᡳ᠈ ᠸᡝᠨ ᡩᡝ ᡩᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᡳ ᠶᠠᠮᡠᠨ ᡩᡝ ᡨᡝᠨᡳ ᡨᡝᡴᡳ
帝會羣臣於溫德殿中。方欲陞座。
ᠰᡝᡵᡝᡩᡝ᠈ ᡥᠣᠯᡴᠣᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠶᠠᠮᡠᠨ ᡳ ᡥᠣᡧᠣᠴᡳ ᠠᠮᠪᠠ ᡝᡩᡠᠨ ᡩᠠᠮᡝ ᠮᡠᠯᡠᠴᡳ ᡩᡝᡥᡳ ᡩᠠ
    忽然殿角狂風大作。見一條青蛇從梁上飛下來。約
ᡶᡠᠨᠴᡝᡵᡝ ᡝᠮᡠ ᠰᠠᡥᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᠮᡝᡳᡥᡝ ᡩᡝᠶᡝᡵᡝ ᡤᡝᠰᡝ ᠸᠠᠰᡳᡶᡳ ᡳᠰᡝ ᡩᡝ ᡥᠠᠶᠠᡥᠠ᠉
二十餘丈。蟠於椅上。
ᠯᡳᠩᡩᡳ ᡥᠠᠨ ᡤᠣᠯᠣᡶᡳ ᡨᡠᡥᡝᠨᡝᡥᡝ ᠪᡝ ᠠᠰᡥᠠᠨ ᡨᡝ ᠪᡳᡥᡝ ᠴᠣᠣᡥᠠᡳ ᡥᠠᡶᠠᠰᠠ
靈帝驚倒。在傍武士急忙救出。
ᡝᠪᡠᡥᡠ ᠰᠠᠪᡠᡥᡡ ᠸᡝᡥᡳᠶᡝᠮᡝ ᡨᡠᠴᡳᠪᡠᡥᡝ᠉ ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ ᠴᠣᠣᡥᠠᡳ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᡤᠣᠯᠣᡶᡳ ᡳᠰᡥᡠᠨᡩᡝ
            文武互相推擁。倒於丹墀者無數。


Vertical Right-to-Left Layout

This is the correct orientation for Manchu text, but the wrong layout direction, produced using the CSS writing-mode : tb-rl style. To compensate for the incorrect right-to-left layout the order of the lines in the HTML code has been reversed so that the text appears to be laid out correctly. This layout is supported by Internet Explorer versions 6 and 7, but not by Mozilla Firefox or Google Chrome.


            文武互相推擁。倒於丹墀者無數。
ᡝᠪᡠᡥᡠ ᠰᠠᠪᡠᡥᡡ ᠸᡝᡥᡳᠶᡝᠮᡝ ᡨᡠᠴᡳᠪᡠᡥᡝ᠉ ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ ᠴᠣᠣᡥᠠᡳ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᡤᠣᠯᠣᡶᡳ ᡳᠰᡥᡠᠨᡩᡝ
靈帝驚倒。在傍武士急忙救出。
ᠯᡳᠩᡩᡳ ᡥᠠᠨ ᡤᠣᠯᠣᡶᡳ ᡨᡠᡥᡝᠨᡝᡥᡝ ᠪᡝ ᠠᠰᡥᠠᠨ ᡨᡝ ᠪᡳᡥᡝ ᠴᠣᠣᡥᠠᡳ ᡥᠠᡶᠠᠰᠠ
二十餘丈。蟠於椅上。
ᡶᡠᠨᠴᡝᡵᡝ ᡝᠮᡠ ᠰᠠᡥᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᠮᡝᡳᡥᡝ ᡩᡝᠶᡝᡵᡝ ᡤᡝᠰᡝ ᠸᠠᠰᡳᡶᡳ ᡳᠰᡝ ᡩᡝ ᡥᠠᠶᠠᡥᠠ᠉
    忽然殿角狂風大作。見一條青蛇從梁上飛下來。約
ᠰᡝᡵᡝᡩᡝ᠈ ᡥᠣᠯᡴᠣᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠶᠠᠮᡠᠨ ᡳ ᡥᠣᡧᠣᠴᡳ ᠠᠮᠪᠠ ᡝᡩᡠᠨ ᡩᠠᠮᡝ ᠮᡠᠯᡠᠴᡳ ᡩᡝᡥᡳ ᡩᠠ
帝會羣臣於溫德殿中。方欲陞座。
ᡥᠠᠨ ᡤᡝᡵᡝᠨ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᡝ ᡳᠰᠠᠪᡠᡶᡳ᠈ ᠸᡝᠨ ᡩᡝ ᡩᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᡳ ᠶᠠᠮᡠᠨ ᡩᡝ ᡨᡝᠨᡳ ᡨᡝᡴᡳ
      建寧二年四月十五日。
ᡨᠣᠣᠰᡝ ᠪᡝ ᡝᠵᡝᠯᡝᡥᡝ᠈ ᠵᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᡳᠩ ᠨᡳ ᠵᠠᡳ ᠠᠨᡳᠶᠠ ᡩᡠᡳᠨ ᠪᡳᠶᠠᡳ ᡨᠣᡶᠣᡥᠣᠨ ᡩᡝ
         被二中涓所害。中涓自此得權。
ᠨᠠᡵᡥᡡᡧᠠᡥᠠᡴᡡ ᠣᡶᡳ᠈ ᠵᡠᠸᡝ ᡨᠠᡳᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠸᠠᠪᡠᡥᠠ᠉ ᡨᡝᡵᡝᠴᡳ ᡨᠠᡳᡤᡳᠠᠨᠰᠠ
       竇武陳蕃預謀誅之。機事不密。
ᠴᡳᡥᠠᡳ ᠶᠠᠪᡠᡵᡝ ᠪᡝ᠈ ᡩᡝᠣ ᡠ᠈ ᠴᡝᠨ ᡶᠠᠨ ᠸᠠᡴᡳ ᠰᡝᠮᡝ ᡥᡝᠪᡝᡩᡝᡶᡳ᠈ ᡥᡝᠪᡝ ᠪᡝ
  王甫弄權任意使為。
ᠵᡳᠶᡝᡳ᠈ ᠸᠠᠩ ᡶᡠ ᡤᡝᠪᡠᠩᡤᡝ ᠵᡠᠸᡝ ᡨᠠᡳᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᡨᠣᠣᠰᡝ ᠪᡝ ᠵᠠᡶᠠᡶᡳ᠈ ᠮᡠᠵᡳᠯᡝᠨ ᡳ
    共相輔佐。     至秋九月。中涓曹節
ᡳᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠣᡶᡳ ᡠᡥᡝᡳ ᡥᠠᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠯᠠᠮᠪᡳ᠉ ᠪᠣᠯᠣᡵᡳ ᡠᠶᡠᠨ ᠪᡳᠶᠠ ᡩᡝ᠈ ᡮᠣᠣ
竇武  太傅陳蕃。司徒胡廣三人。
ᡩᡝᠣ ᡠ᠈ ᡨᠠᡳᡶᡠ ᡥᠠᡶᠠᠨ ᠴᡝᠨ ᡶᠠᠨ᠈ ᠰᡟᡨᡠ ᡥᠠᡶᠠᠨ ᡥᡡ ᡤᡠᠸᠠᠩ ᠪᡳᡶᡳ
    時年十二歲。    朝廷有大將軍
ᡨᡝᡥᡝ᠉ ᡨᡝᡵᡝ ᡶᠣᠨᡩᡝ ᠵᡠᠸᠠᠨ ᠵᡠᠸᡝ ᠰᡝ ᠪᡳᡥᡝ᠉ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠠᠮᠪᠠ ᠵᡳᠶᠠᠩᠵᡳᠶᡡᠨ
後漢桓帝崩。         子靈帝即位。
ᠠᠮᠠᡤᠠ ᡥᠠᠨ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ᡳ ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠨᡨᡳ ᡠᡵᡳᡥᡝ ᠮᠠᠩᡤᡳ᠈ ᠵᡠᡳ ᠯᡳᠩᡩᡳ ᠰᠣᠣᡵᡳᠨ ᡩᡝ
    祭天地桃園結義
   ᠠᠪᡴᠠ ᠨᠠ ᡩᡝ ᠸᡝᠴᡝᠮᡝ ᡨᠣᠣᡵᠣ ᠶᠠᡶᠠᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠵᡠᡵᡤᠠᠨ ᡳ ᡥᠠᠵᡳᠯᠠᡥᠠ᠉


Horizontal Layout

This is the default orientation and layour direction when no CSS writing-mode style is applied.


   ᠠᠪᡴᠠ ᠨᠠ ᡩᡝ ᠸᡝᠴᡝᠮᡝ ᡨᠣᠣᡵᠣ ᠶᠠᡶᠠᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠵᡠᡵᡤᠠᠨ ᡳ ᡥᠠᠵᡳᠯᠠᡥᠠ᠉
    祭天地桃園結義
ᠠᠮᠠᡤᠠ ᡥᠠᠨ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ᡳ ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠨᡨᡳ ᡠᡵᡳᡥᡝ ᠮᠠᠩᡤᡳ᠈ ᠵᡠᡳ ᠯᡳᠩᡩᡳ ᠰᠣᠣᡵᡳᠨ ᡩᡝ
後漢桓帝崩。         子靈帝即位。
ᡨᡝᡥᡝ᠉ ᡨᡝᡵᡝ ᡶᠣᠨᡩᡝ ᠵᡠᠸᠠᠨ ᠵᡠᠸᡝ ᠰᡝ ᠪᡳᡥᡝ᠉ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠠᠮᠪᠠ ᠵᡳᠶᠠᠩᠵᡳᠶᡡᠨ
    時年十二歲。    朝廷有大將軍
ᡩᡝᠣ ᡠ᠈ ᡨᠠᡳᡶᡠ ᡥᠠᡶᠠᠨ ᠴᡝᠨ ᡶᠠᠨ᠈ ᠰᡟᡨᡠ ᡥᠠᡶᠠᠨ ᡥᡡ ᡤᡠᠸᠠᠩ ᠪᡳᡶᡳ
竇武  太傅陳蕃。司徒胡廣三人。
ᡳᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠣᡶᡳ ᡠᡥᡝᡳ ᡥᠠᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠯᠠᠮᠪᡳ᠉ ᠪᠣᠯᠣᡵᡳ ᡠᠶᡠᠨ ᠪᡳᠶᠠ ᡩᡝ᠈ ᡮᠣᠣ
    共相輔佐。     至秋九月。中涓曹節
ᠵᡳᠶᡝᡳ᠈ ᠸᠠᠩ ᡶᡠ ᡤᡝᠪᡠᠩᡤᡝ ᠵᡠᠸᡝ ᡨᠠᡳᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᡨᠣᠣᠰᡝ ᠪᡝ ᠵᠠᡶᠠᡶᡳ᠈ ᠮᡠᠵᡳᠯᡝᠨ ᡳ
  王甫弄權任意使為。
ᠴᡳᡥᠠᡳ ᠶᠠᠪᡠᡵᡝ ᠪᡝ᠈ ᡩᡝᠣ ᡠ᠈ ᠴᡝᠨ ᡶᠠᠨ ᠸᠠᡴᡳ ᠰᡝᠮᡝ ᡥᡝᠪᡝᡩᡝᡶᡳ᠈ ᡥᡝᠪᡝ ᠪᡝ
       竇武陳蕃預謀誅之。機事不密。
ᠨᠠᡵᡥᡡᡧᠠᡥᠠᡴᡡ ᠣᡶᡳ᠈ ᠵᡠᠸᡝ ᡨᠠᡳᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠸᠠᠪᡠᡥᠠ᠉ ᡨᡝᡵᡝᠴᡳ ᡨᠠᡳᡤᡳᠠᠨᠰᠠ
         被二中涓所害。中涓自此得權。
ᡨᠣᠣᠰᡝ ᠪᡝ ᡝᠵᡝᠯᡝᡥᡝ᠈ ᠵᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᡳᠩ ᠨᡳ ᠵᠠᡳ ᠠᠨᡳᠶᠠ ᡩᡠᡳᠨ ᠪᡳᠶᠠᡳ ᡨᠣᡶᠣᡥᠣᠨ ᡩᡝ
      建寧二年四月十五日。
ᡥᠠᠨ ᡤᡝᡵᡝᠨ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᡝ ᡳᠰᠠᠪᡠᡶᡳ᠈ ᠸᡝᠨ ᡩᡝ ᡩᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᡳ ᠶᠠᠮᡠᠨ ᡩᡝ ᡨᡝᠨᡳ ᡨᡝᡴᡳ
帝會羣臣於溫德殿中。方欲陞座。
ᠰᡝᡵᡝᡩᡝ᠈ ᡥᠣᠯᡴᠣᠨ ᡩᡝ ᠶᠠᠮᡠᠨ ᡳ ᡥᠣᡧᠣᠴᡳ ᠠᠮᠪᠠ ᡝᡩᡠᠨ ᡩᠠᠮᡝ ᠮᡠᠯᡠᠴᡳ ᡩᡝᡥᡳ ᡩᠠ
    忽然殿角狂風大作。見一條青蛇從梁上飛下來。約
ᡶᡠᠨᠴᡝᡵᡝ ᡝᠮᡠ ᠰᠠᡥᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᠮᡝᡳᡥᡝ ᡩᡝᠶᡝᡵᡝ ᡤᡝᠰᡝ ᠸᠠᠰᡳᡶᡳ ᡳᠰᡝ ᡩᡝ ᡥᠠᠶᠠᡥᠠ᠉
二十餘丈。蟠於椅上。
ᠯᡳᠩᡩᡳ ᡥᠠᠨ ᡤᠣᠯᠣᡶᡳ ᡨᡠᡥᡝᠨᡝᡥᡝ ᠪᡝ ᠠᠰᡥᠠᠨ ᡨᡝ ᠪᡳᡥᡝ ᠴᠣᠣᡥᠠᡳ ᡥᠠᡶᠠᠰᠠ
靈帝驚倒。在傍武士急忙救出。
ᡝᠪᡠᡥᡠ ᠰᠠᠪᡠᡥᡡ ᠸᡝᡥᡳᠶᡝᠮᡝ ᡨᡠᠴᡳᠪᡠᡥᡝ᠉ ᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ ᠴᠣᠣᡥᠠᡳ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᡤᠣᠯᠣᡶᡳ ᡳᠰᡥᡠᠨᡩᡝ
            文武互相推擁。倒於丹墀者無數。


Romanised Transcription of Text

abka na-de weceme tooro yafan-de jurgan-i hajilaha.
amaga han gurun-i hūwanti urihe manggi, jui lingdi soorin-de
tehe. tere fonde juwan juwe se bihe. gurun-de amba jiyangjiyūn
deo u, taifu hafan cen fan, sytu hafan hū guwang bifi
ilan nofi uhei han-de aisilambi. bolori uyun biya-de, čoo
jiyei, wang fu gebungge juwe taigiyan toose-be jafafi, mujilen-i
cihai yabure-be, deo u, cen fan waki seme hebedefi, hebe-be
narhūšahakū ofi, juwe taigiyan-de wabuha. tereci taigiansa
toose-be ejelehe, jiyan ning-ni jai aniya duin biyai tofohon-de
han geren ambasa-be isabufi, wen-de diyan-i yamun-de teni teki
serede, holkon-de yamun-i hošoci amba edun dame muluci dehi da
funcere emu sahaliyan meihe deyere gese wasifi ise-de hayaha.
lingdi han golofi tuhenehe-be ashan te bihe coohai hafasa
ebuhu sabuhū wehiyeme tucibuhe. bithe coohai ambasa golofi ishunde


Translation of Text

A True Friendship is Formed when Sacrificing to Heaven and Earth in the Peach Orchard

When Emperor Huan of the Latter Han dynasty passed away, his son Emperor Ling ascended to the throne. At that time he was twelve years old, and at court the three ministers, Marshal Dou Wu, Imperial Guardian Chen Fan and Minister of the Interior Hu Guang together advised the emperor. In autumn, during the ninth month, the two infamous eunochs Cao Jie and Wang Fu seized control of the government, and because they ran things just as they liked, Dou Wu and Chen Fan plotted to kill them. However, because their plans leaked out, the two eunochs had them killed. From that time on the eunochs held absolute power.

On the fifteenth day of the fourth month of the second year of the Jianning reign period [169 A.D.] the emperor assembled all his officials at court in the Wende Hall. He was just about to take his seat when suddenly a great wind sprang up from the corner of the hall, and a black snake that was forty fathoms or more in length flew down from the rafters, and wrapped itself around the throne. Emperor Ling was so afraid that he fell over, and all the guards that were at his side rushed over to help him up. The civil and military officials were so startled that they [pushed each other over, and many of them fell onto the imperial steps in front of the throne].



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