Auction Lists for Tangut Items

This page documents auction sales of items of printed or manuscript Tangut texts. As many of the auction companies do not maintain detailed public records of past auctions, the links on this page are mostly to the auction.artron.net website (雅昌艺术品拍卖网), which is comprehensive, and has minimally invasive watermarks on the images, or to the pmgs.kongfz.com website (孔夫子拍卖公司联盟) in the case of the Debao 2014 auction. Click on the thumbnail image to open the full-sized image in a new tab. Where possible I have provided unwatermarked images from the auction company website, but in cases where an unwatermarked image is lower resolution than the Artron or Kongfz watermarked image then I provide both.

Most of the items listed below appear to be genuine, but as Chinese auction companies do not give any provenance for the items they sell, it is not known where exactly they came from. The Tangut items comprising the nine lots in the Debao November 2014 Auction were almost certainly looted from a Western Xia Buddhist site in Inner Mongolia, Gansu, or Ningxia, possibly the "Green City" site (Lǜchéng yízhǐ 绿城遗址) situated in a remote and inaccessible part of Ejina Banner in Inner Mongolia. Six months after the Debao auction, the National Library of China acquired 18 bundles of Tangut documents in a very poor state from a book dealer in Yinchuan (see my twitter thread for details), and it is quite possible that this collection was looted from the same site as the Debao auction items. The November 2014 auction marked an explosion in the number of Tangut documents selling at auction in China, with apparently genuine Western Xia Tangut documents appearing in 17 auctions between 2014 and 2019. The most significant auction was the Sungari December 2017 Auction with 21 lots of Tangut items. It is now known that these items were all part of the Yòuqǐtáng 佑啟堂 collection of Mr. Mǐ Xiàngjūn 米向军 of Yinchuan in Ningxia, but it is not known where or how he acquired them. It is possible that he acquired them piecemeal over many years, but the nature of the texts is consistent with the Debao items, and are quite similar to the range of texts found at the Western Xia Buddhist cave site of Shanzuigou (Shānzuǐgōu shíkū 山嘴沟石窟), so I am inclined to think that they were also looted from a Western Xia Buddhist site. Thirteen lots of Tangut texts were also put up for sale at the Taihe Jiacheng June 2019 Auction, and these also bear all the hallmarks of having been looted. In particular, Taihe Jiacheng Lot 2508 and Debao Lot 69 appear to be parts of the same text, so should share a common origin. In my opinion, the large number of Tangut texts coming up for auction since 2014 is not a coincidence, but reflects the systematic looting of an unknown Western Xia site. This undoubtedly caused irreparable damage and loss to an important historical site. Moreover, the treasure hunters may have discarded small scraps of text that they considered worthless, but even small fragments may be important to scholars. And of course knowing the context of where the texts were found would help us better understand and interpret them.


List of Auctions


Appendices



Hosane March 2012 Auction

Auction House: Hosane
上海泓盛
Auction Title: 2012 Hosane March Auction: Chinese paper money (2)
2012三月拍卖会-中国纸币(二) (B12032)
Location: Shanghai Jianguo Hotel
上海建国宾馆
Date: 2012-03-30
Tangut Lots: 1

Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
802

古代文书等残片若干

古代文书等残片若干,内含宋代、西夏、金、元四朝,内容涉及契约、经文、唐卡、至元宝钞等残片,有汉文、西夏文、老蒙文、回鹘文等不同文字,部分手书、部分印刷,源于资深藏家之典藏,原汁原味,值得细玩和珍视,对研究古代纸张辨伪等颇有裨益,残缺品,敬请预览。

CNY 100,000

Collection of about 30 miscellaneous manuscript fragments, including six small fragments of Tangut manuscripts (bottom left corner).

Not Sold


Debao November 2014 Auction

Auction House: Beijing Debao International Auction Co.
北京德宝国际拍卖有限公司
Auction Title: 2014 Debao Autumn Auction
北京德宝2014年秋季拍卖会
Location: Beijing Capital Library
北京首都图书馆
Date: 2014-11-23
Tangut Lots: 9 (results)

Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
64

金刚般若波罗蜜经残页

西夏刻本

一沓

尺寸不一

此经经折装,经查《夏汉字典》等工具书,可知为西夏文《金刚般若波罗蜜经》。

CNY 10,000–20,000

Number of sheets from a woodblock printed edition of the Tangut translation of the Vajracchedikā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra.

CNY 50,000 (USD 8,050)
65

西夏文字字典

西夏刻蝴蝶装本

一册附一张

尺寸不一

此书为绫子封面,最难得的是还保留了原式蝴蝶装,未经修复装裱,文字精整,刻印清晰。书中有三十字母表,即为西夏文偏旁部首,及所举的例字,应当是一部难得的西夏文字典,而且首尾完整,对于研究西夏文字有重要意义。

CNY 12,000–20,000

Woodblock printed edition, butterfly binding comprising 1 fascicle (14 folios) and 1 loose sheet (?), in a silk wrapper for a different Buddhist work. This is a hitherto unknown work on Tangut phonetics entitled 𘄴𘏲𗏹𘈧𗦻𘙰𗏇𘉅 tshi tsɪ̣ ꞏi̯u ndai mi̯e leɯ ndi ndza "Essential Selection of Often-Transmitted Homonyms and Mixed Characters" (Chinese Zéyào chángchuán tóngmíng zázì 擇要常傳同名雜字). I refer to it as Homonyms for short.

Sold to Tóng Zhìxīn 童志新, a private collector of rare books and clan registers from Jinhua city in Zhejiang province.

Displayed at an exhibition of rare books in private ownership held at the National Library of China in Beijing from 10th July to 10th August 2015.

CNY 690,000 (USD 111,102)
66

西夏文写本

西夏写本

一张

26.5×12cm

此经书写工整,正面和背面皆为西夏文佛经,字体不一。

CNY 10,000–20,000

Sheet from a manuscript of a Tangut Buddhist text.

CNY 8,000 (USD 1,288)
67

西夏文佛经

西夏活字印本

一张

29.5×19cm

此佛经为木活字印本,九行一百八十七字,较少见。

CNY 10,000–20,000

Half a folio from a wooden movable type printed edition of a Tangut Buddhist text.

CNY 28,000 (USD 4,508)
68

西夏文佛经

西夏刻本

一张

57.5×15cm

此佛经为轴装,末尾处有刊刻文字。经过翻译,知其印有“皇太子赐印”字样,或为太子捐资刻印之物。佛经上印有“卍”字纹,“△”纹、“×”纹等。

CNY 12,000–20,000

Final part of a woodblock printed scroll of a Tangut Buddhist sutra, printed on behalf of the crown prince.

CNY 40,000 (USD 6,440)
69

西夏文佛经

西夏刻本

二张

尺寸不一

此佛经印有佛教造像手印,一为莲花掌,另一为弥陀定印,且六字大明咒中的唵、吽皆用汉文刊刻完成,清晰可见。

CNY 10,000–20,000

2 sheets from a woodblock printed edition of a Tangut Buddhist text showing mudras.

Cf. Qishi November 2016 Lot 0545 and Lot 0546, and Taihe Jiacheng June 2019 Lot 2508.

CNY 8,000 (USD 1,288)
70

西夏文佛经

西夏刻本

一沓

尺寸不一

此为西夏文佛经二种,折装,刻印精致。

CNY 10,000–20,000

Number of sheets from a woodblock printed edition of a Tangut Budhist sutra.

CNY 90,000 (USD 14,491)
71

西夏文佛经

西夏刻手绘设色本

一沓

尺寸不一

此经有数幅彩色版画,为十二生肖本命佛图,除缺鼠外,其余可见。而且每幅神像还皆绘上了颜色,这种手绘设色的西夏版画是极为少见的。

CNY 10000–20,000

Number of sheets from a woodblock printed edition of a Tangut Buddhist sutra, with hand-coloured illustrations.

CNY 95,000 (USD 15,296)
72

佛说父母恩咒经等二种

西夏刻本

一沓

尺寸不一

拍品为西夏文佛经两种,其一为《佛说父母恩咒经》。另一种佛经有精美版画多幅,其中有多种人物,既有十殿阎王,又有骑马打幡,纵横阴阳的报信者,似乎是描述阴间审判罪人的佛经,人物形象栩栩如生。 版画风格粗犷,多喜用明暗两种线条来表现人物的衣着神态,刀法高古。经文刊刻亦甚精整。

CNY 12,000–20,000

Number of sheets from two woodblock printed editions of Tangut Buddhist texts, one an edition of the Sutra of Filial Piety, and one an illustrated edition of a text describing the judgement of the dead.

CNY 390,000 (USD 62,796)


Qishi November 2016 Auction

Auction House: Beijing Qishi International Auction Co.
北京启石国际拍卖有限公司
Auction Title: 2016 Qishi Autumn Auction: Buddhist art and texts
2016首届艺术品秋季拍卖会 佛光普照
Location: Liangmahe Dasha, Chaoyang District, Beijing
北京市朝阳区亮马河大厦
Date: 2016-11-13
Tangut Lots: 2

Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
0545

西夏文金刚经

高28cm

CNY 50,000–60,000

Cf. Debao November 2014 Lot 69 (seem to be part of the same text).

Re-auctioned as part of Taihe Jiacheng June 2019 Lot 2508.

0546

西夏文金刚经

高22cm

CNY 50,000–60,000

Cf. Debao November 2014 Lot 69 (seem to be part of the same text).

Re-auctioned as part of Taihe Jiacheng June 2019 Lot 2508.



Taihe Jiacheng June 2017 Auction

Auction House: Beijing Taihe Jiacheng Auction Co.
北京泰和嘉成拍卖有限公司
Auction Title: 2017 Taihe Jiacheng Spring Auction: Ancient rare books and antiquities
2017年春季艺术品拍卖会 古籍善本·金石碑版
Location: Liangmahe Dasha, Chaoyang District, Beijing
北京市朝阳区亮马河大厦
Date: 2017-06-04
Tangut Lots: 1 (results)

Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
2368

西夏文《喜金刚现证如意宝》 纸本

西夏文写本

手卷1卷

27×312cm

此卷西夏文所书《喜金刚现证如意宝》为存世孤本。据李若愚博士《西夏文〈喜金刚现证如意宝〉考释》一文考证:拍品为“元代帝师八思巴《喜金刚现证如意宝》上卷的西夏文译本,是一部修习喜金刚法的现证法本,内容由入定始,止于出定部分诵咒定,卷末附有校订者题名,三行西夏文草书所作的修习法,以及抄写后核对的题记。”此三行西夏文草书在西夏文文献中至为罕见。本卷《喜金刚现正如意宝》不仅是“迄今仅见的西夏译八思巴著作,也是迄今仅见的有大致年代可考的蒙元译本,对它的解读不仅能为研究藏传西夏文文献提供基本的资料,同时也为研究蒙元时期西夏遗民的宗教思想提供了基本的历史数据”。具体请参考李若愚博士一文。

CNY 750,000–850,000

Yuan dynasty Tangut manuscript scroll of Hevajra's Wish-Fulfilling Gem of Abhisamaya. Tangut title 𗗉𗍥𘟙𗌮𗙼𗥤𗉣𗖵𘏨 (Xǐ jīngāng xiànzhèng rúyì bǎo 喜金剛現證如意寶).

  • Lǐ Ruòyú 李若愚. "'Xǐ jīngāng xiànzhèng rúyì bǎo': Yuán dìshī Bāsībā zhùzuò de Xīxià yìběn" 《喜金刚现证如意宝》: 元帝师八思巴著作的西夏译本 [Hevajra's Ruyibao: A Tangut Version by Yuan Imperial Preceptor Ba Siba]; Níngxià Shèhuì Kēxué 宁夏社会科学 [Social Sciences in Ningxia] No. 5 (September 2016): 206–212.
  • Andrew West and Viacheslav Zaytsev. Unicode Technical Note #42: Tangut Character Additions and Glyph Corrections Version 2 (2019-12-21) pp. 24–34.

See Rongbao December 2018 Lot 1263 and Poly June 2019 Lot 2743.

CNY 2,300,000 (USD 338,185)


Sungari December 2017 Auction

Auction House: Sungari
中贸圣佳国际拍卖有限公司
Auction Title: 2017 Sungari Autumn Auction: Rare Books - Letters of Celebrities, Rubbings and Manuscripts
2017秋季艺术品拍卖会 万卷——古籍善本专场
Location: Kerry Hotel, Beijing
北京嘉里大酒店
Date: 2017-12-21
Tangut Lots: 21 (catalogue)

Provenance

The auction site does not give a provenance for any of the items, nor the name of the seller. However, it is now known that all twenty-one Tangut lots are from the Yòuqǐtáng 佑啟堂 collection of Mr. Mǐ Xiàngjūn 米向军 of Yinchuan in Ningxia. Prior to the auction Duàn Yùquán 段玉泉 of the Institute of Xixia Studies of Ningxia University (宁夏大学西夏学研究院) led a project to catalogue and study the Yòuqǐtáng collection of Tangut texts (《宁夏佑啟堂藏西夏文献研究》), which was completed in July 2017. See Gāo Shānshān 高山杉 中贸圣佳所拍西夏文文献为宁夏佑啟堂藏品 [Tangut documents sold at auction by Sungari come from the Ningxia Youqitang collection] (2018-10-10) for the identification of the seller and very useful discussion of some of the items. It seems that not all the Tangut items in the Yòuqǐtáng collection were included in the Sungari 2017 auction (Gāo Shānshān notes that NY011·64 discussed in Wú and Yú 2018 appears not to be among the auctioned items).


Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
1148

同音重唇音一品

西夏文刻本

1页 纸本

26.8×17.2cm

《同音》即《音同》直译,为西夏官修字书,成书在西夏早期,《俄藏黑水城文献》有著录,民国八年罗振玉先生首次抄录出版。一九三二年罗福成发表《韵统举例》选《同音》第一品“重唇音”一百四十六字做译释,并称“至为可贵”。此件标的为完整一页,存西夏大字五十六并有小字注释,尤其难得者,此纸托背纸为西夏佛经完整一页,字体墨色浓淡稍显不匀,单字亦有倾斜者,疑为活字本。

CNY 30,000–50,000

The right image is Homophones (𗙏𘙰 = Tóngyīn 同音) Edition B folio 7A.

The left image is a sheet of a Buddhist text which is pasted to the back of Homophones. The auction description suggests that it may have been printed using movable type.

1149

鲜卑国师劝世集

西夏干佑十九年(1188)杨慧广捐刻本

1页 纸本

20.5×23cm

《鲜卑国师劝世集》是迄今所知唯一一部西夏人的个人诗文集,在西夏文学史上占有重要地位。作者鲜卑宝源有“大度民寺诠教国师”的称号,是十二世纪中叶服务于西夏王室的一名高僧,参与过多种佛教典籍的翻译和校订工作。诗文集的内容多是规劝世人认清人生苦短,富贵浮云,莫如尽早修善向佛。《鲜卑国师劝世集》又称“贤智集”,现在这纸残片来自西夏干佑十九年(1188)杨慧广捐刻本,较完整的同版刻本今藏俄罗斯科学院东方文献研究所。

CNY 30,000–50,000
  • Wú Xuěméi 吴雪梅. "Níngxià Yòuqǐtáng cáng sānjiàn Xīxiàwén cánpiàn kǎoshì" 宁夏佑啓堂藏三件西夏文残片考释 [Making Textual Criticisms and Explanations on Three Tangut Remnants Collected by NingXia You Qi Tang]; in Xīxià Yánjiū 西夏研究 [Tangut Research] 2018.03: 28–34.
1150

西夏文资料

西夏文刻本

6页 绢本

单片约12.7×16.2cm

木板雕刻后以绢本刷印,在存世西夏遗书中属罕见者,此标的六个残片均为两面刷印,其中四片疑为完整一页两面。

CNY 50,000–80,000

Woodblock printed on both sides of a silk sheet. One complete folio in four sections, and one half folio in two sections (six sections in all). Image shows both Side A (top 6 sections) and Side B (bottom 6 sections).

I consider anything printed on silk rather than paper to be suspicious, and so class this as a possible fake.

Broken into three parts and offered for sale as Taihe Jiacheng October 2019 Lot 2162, Lot 2163, and Lot 2164.

1151

大寒林佛母版画

西夏文刻本

1页 纸本

16.8×7.8cm

CNY 10,000–20,000

1152

佛说法图

西夏刻敷色本

1页 纸本

21.5×9cm

此纸系常冠于佛经卷首的扉画,存核心释迦牟尼讲法部分,可见释迦牟尼坐像,及座前菩萨、罗汉等众。扉画上下双栏,线条疏密有致,刀法流畅,释迦牟尼身着敷搭双肩下垂式佛衣,与西夏版画中常见的释迦牟尼衣饰相同,可见为同一时期产物。

CNY 10,000–30,000

1153

佛说十王经

西夏文刻本

1册 纸本

21.3×9.8cm

经折装一册,驼色护封,蓝绫面,明黄色签,签题“金刚般若经”,首有扉画“佛说法图”,图左中部可见刻工“某某刊印”。内文系《佛说十王经》内容,一个折页五行,行字规整。

CNY 150,000–300,000
  • Wú Xuěméi 吴雪梅. "Níngxià Yòuqǐtáng cáng sānjiàn Xīxiàwén cánpiàn kǎoshì" 宁夏佑啓堂藏三件西夏文残片考释 [Making Textual Criticisms and Explanations on Three Tangut Remnants Collected by NingXia You Qi Tang]; in Xīxià Yánjiū 西夏研究 [Tangut Research] 2018.03: 28–34.
1154

妙法莲华经卷七

西夏文刻本

1册 纸本

21×10.5cm

驼色护封,墨笔题签“观音供养本”,内文系妙法莲华经卷七,上图下文板式。

CNY 150,000–200,000

1155

佛说大白伞盖总持陀罗尼经

西夏文刻本

2片 纸本

尺寸不一

上下单栏,每行十一字,其一版首有阴刻编号“五”字。尺幅最大者达宽14.6,长31.2厘米。

CNY 20,000–30,000

1156

金刚般若波罗蜜经

西夏文刻本

3页 纸本

尺寸不一

CNY 50,000–80,000

Right fragment is catalogued as NY011·4.

  • Wú Xuěméi 吴雪梅 and Yú Guāngjiàn 于光建. "Xīnjiàn Níngxià Yòuqǐtáng cáng XīxiàwénJīngāngjīng cánpiàn kǎoshì" 新见宁夏佑啟堂藏西夏文《金刚经》残片考释; in Níngxià Shèhuì Kēxué 宁夏社会科学 [Social Sciences in Ningxia] 2018.04: 229–233.
1157

佛说阿弥陀经

西夏文写本

1卷 纸本

28.6×82cm

存经文四十一行,行十八至二十字不等,纸幅开阔。

CNY 50,000–80,000

1158

贤觉帝师所传经

西夏文写本

1卷 纸本

17.3×54cm

西夏文草书写卷,据所存内容知其为译自藏文的某种求生净土修行法。卷尾谓此法自佛顶髻中出,并叙述其由波腻经师经西夏波罗贤觉帝师终至显密禅师沙门宝海的传承次第,此叙述为出土文献中仅见,可以为藏传佛教在西夏的传播补充资料。传承中述及的“贤觉帝师”名“波罗显胜”,于十二世纪中叶在世,则此抄本当为西夏晚期作品,极具学术价值。

CNY 150,000–500,000

Bought by Hé Hóngmíng 和宏明, proprietor of 孔夫子旧书网. See 五明子, 孔夫子旧书网老板和宏明先生拍到的西夏文残经 (2018-07-08).

CNY 402,500 (USD 61,119)
1159

求生净土略礼忏本卷下

西夏文写本

1册 纸本

21.6×15.8cm

译自佚名汉文本礼佛忏悔法,己卯年二月十三日仇德海抄本,两书合订一册,汉文页码各成起讫。首叙佛家戒律及忏悔仪轨,次向大慈悲主阿弥陀佛祈愿忏悔,有文殊颂及请功德偈文。此件标的由于年久,装帧腐坏,按书页叠放样式可推测为蝴蝶装或稀见的缝缋装。

CNY 280,000–500,000
1160

礼佛文

西夏文写本

1页 纸本

27.2×42cm

CNY 20,000–30,000

1161

佛书科文

西夏文写本

1页 纸本

29.3×27.3cm

CNY 10,000–20,000

Gāo Shānshān 高山杉: "经我仔细研究,发现居然是关于印度寂天论师(8世纪人)《入菩提行论》第六品《安忍品》或该品某种注疏的科文。"

1162

新集锦合辞

十二世纪(公元1200年左右)西夏文写本

1张 纸本

20.6×11.6cm

西夏民间格言集,赞美党项文化,讲述人生道理。全书收录西夏格言三百六十四则,依字数多少排列,每句少则三言,多则十五言,两句为一联,对仗颇工,其形式及内容似与吐蕃、蒙古格言相类。原书为西夏干佑七年(1176)御史承旨梁德养初编,十八年切韵博士王仁持增补。俄罗斯科学院东方文献研究所藏有十二世纪末褐布商蒲梁尼刻本,英国不列颠图书馆藏有年代不明的另一抄本,此残片抄写时代当在英藏本前后,即十二至十三世纪之交,残片上保存的是七言句的一部分。

CNY 30,000–50,000

Originally pasted to the back of Lot 1149.

  • Wú Xuěméi 吴雪梅. "Níngxià Yòuqǐtáng cáng sānjiàn Xīxiàwén cánpiàn kǎoshì" 宁夏佑啓堂藏三件西夏文残片考释 [Making Textual Criticisms and Explanations on Three Tangut Remnants Collected by NingXia You Qi Tang]; in Xīxià Yánjiū 西夏研究 [Tangut Research] 2018.03: 28–34.
1163

梁朝傅大士颂金刚经科文

西夏文刻本

3页 纸本

尺寸不一

《金刚经》“梁朝傅大士本”的分节讲解(科文),俄罗斯和英国亦有同书残片收藏,内容似可互相补充。原书肯定译自汉文,但汉文原本未能留传至今,有极高的文献价值。

CNY 10,000–20,000

Lot 1163 and Taihe Jiacheng June 2019 Lot 2507 are undoubtedly parts of the same copy of the same text.

IOM in Russia holds a complete copy of the same edition (as well as fragments) as Tang 386/37 (old. inv. no. 7580a):

  • Taihe Jiacheng Lot 2507 (right-to-left images) = IOM Tang 386/37 folios 49, 50, 51.
  • Sungari Lot 1163 (right-to-left images) = IOM Tang 386/37 folios 52, 54, 53.
  • 1164

    佛经残页

    西夏文刻本

    5片 纸本

    尺寸不一

    含西夏文刻《放生仪轨经》、《金刚般若波罗蜜经》等残片五片。

    Bottom left and bottom right fragments are catalogued as NY011·23.

    • Wú Xuěméi 吴雪梅 and Yú Guāngjiàn 于光建. "Xīnjiàn Níngxià Yòuqǐtáng cáng XīxiàwénJīngāngjīng cánpiàn kǎoshì" 新见宁夏佑啟堂藏西夏文《金刚经》残片考释; in Níngxià Shèhuì Kēxué 宁夏社会科学 [Social Sciences in Ningxia] 2018.04: 229–233.

    See Qindao Rongde July 2018 Lot 1134 and Rongbao December 2018 Lot 1301.

    CNY 17,250 (USD 2,619)
    1165

    借贷文契

    西夏汉文写本

    1页 纸本

    26.3×18.8cm

    西夏汉文写本借贷文契一张,有“见人都丁布”落款,“见人”即所谓见证人、中人。

    CNY 15,000–20,000

    Written in Chinese, but with some Tangut characters at top left (?).

    Dèng Wéntāo considers that it was probably found at Kharakhoto, and that it dates to the mid or late Yuan dynasty.

    • Dèng Wéntāo 邓文韬. "Yījiàn wèikānbùde hēishuǐchéng chūtǔ yuándài jièqiánqì kǎoshì" 一件未刊布的黑水城出土元代借钱契考释 [Textual Research on a Loan Contract of the Yuan Dynasty Unearthed in Khara-Khoto]; in Xīxià Yánjiū 西夏研究 [Tangut Research] 2019.02: 42–45.
    1166

    金刚般若波罗蜜经

    西夏文刻本

    1册 纸本

    14.2×7cm

    巾箱本原装一册,靛蓝色花绫面,存部分原签,有汉文佛经及西夏文经籍衬底。

    CNY 50,000–80,000

    1167

    三才杂字

    西夏干佑十八年(1187)杨山刻本

    6片 纸本

    尺寸不一

    《三才杂字》为供学童识字的蒙书,正文以“天”、“地”、“人”三才分类,每类下收西夏词语若干,无注释。西夏干佑十八年(1187)杨山刻本,较完整的同版刻本今藏俄罗斯科学院东方文献研究所。此件标的几纸残片来自原书的“树”、“女服”、“宝”、“丝”等章。

    CNY 20,000–50,000

    Woodblock edition of the classified vocabulary 𘕕𗧁𗏇𘉅 (Sāncái Zázì 三才杂字).

    Catalogued as NY011·20. Wú and Shào discuss four fragments (belonging to two different editions), the auction lists six fragments, but only shows images for five fragments. The sixth fragment is at the bottom left of this photo by Wéi Lì 韦力 (Zhǐlánzhāi 芷蘭齋 : 孔夫子旧书网:古旧巨擘,私馆最大(上)).

    • Wú Xuěméi 吴雪梅 and Shào Yìxuān邵译萱. "Xīnjiàn Xīxiàwén Sāncái Zázì cánpiàn kǎoshì" 新见西夏文《三才杂字》残片考释 [Research on the Newly Discovered Tangut Sancaizazi Collected by You Qi Tang in Ningxia]; in Xīxià Yánjiū 西夏研究 [Tangut Research] 2019.03: 60–68.

    Bought by Hé Hóngmíng 和宏明, proprietor of 孔夫子旧书网. See 五明子, 孔夫子旧书网老板和宏明先生拍到的西夏文残经 (2018-07-08).

    The five fragments shown in the auction photo are the same format and layout as the woodblock edition held at the IOM in Russia, but are a different edition (recarved blocks):

    • Fragments A (centre top) and B (left top) = IOM 05B1–05B7
    • Fragment C (right) = IOM 06A2–06A8
    • Fragment D (centre bottom) = IOM 06B1–06B8
    • Fragment E (left bottom) = IOM 07A1–07A8

    Fragment A includes three words that are lost or incomplete in the IOM version (𗭄𗬻, 𘈄𗬻, 𗬼𗬿).

    CNY 149,500 (USD 22,701)
    1168

    观无量寿佛经疏

    西夏文刻本

    4片 纸本

    尺寸不一

    出自同经之内,阴阳两刻,西夏文献阴刻者少见。



    ZhongHongXin January 2018 Auction

    Auction House: ZhongHongXin International Auction Co. (Sino Honesty Auctions)
    中鸿信国际拍卖有限公司
    Auction Title: ZhongHongXin 20th Anniversary Auction: Buddhist art
    中鸿信20周年庆典拍卖会 般若—传承千年佛教艺术专场
    Location: Beijing International Hotel Convention Center
    北京国际饭店会议中心
    Date: 2018-01-06
    Tangut Lots: 1

    Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
    0422

    北宋 佛说阿尼陀经礼赞·西夏经文刻本(两件)

    镜芯 纸本

    26.5×135 cm; 40×40 cm

    日本九州藤原菊池家旧藏,本姓藤原氏,九州肥后国池郡,今熊本菊池市。

    此二幅,北宋时期坛城雕刻木版印刷、佛说阿尼陀经礼赞文首,原藏于奈良东大寺八幡宫,明治维新时期流落于西乡隆盛菊池一族末裔手中。 北宋时期雕木版印刷坛城目前流于民间谨此一件,自佛教从印度传入中土,坛城便是藏传佛教修行及中原佛教供奉的一种对象。汉传中,藏密的分支东密流入中原及日本(真言宗)。这张木版印四祥云围绕"轮圆"坛城,融合了藏密与汉传佛修及印度佛建所有浓缩。外围一周的火焰纹,看到北魏到北齐佛背光的影像。内围二层金刚杵连圆,三层莲花佛瓣围绕,吉祥八宝首护诸神四大宫殿及中央无极八瓣莲花坛场。比喻佛教的世界结构。印刷坛城四层裱纸托底,又一次体现北宋的官刻装裱技术及对作品本身服务于当时北宋宫延的价值体现,及北宋时期与藏地文化交流的见证,是东密传入北宋时期的佛教供养珍品。

    图二木雕版印刷西夏佛经,西夏经文版画内容丰富多样,此版西夏经文与同时期的宋版佛经一样,版头经首扉画,此卷守为释迦说法图,庄严畏敬、浮图梵音、诸佛赤脚顶礼释尊!西夏王朝中央政权设有僧众功德司、出家功德司、刻字司,列名于中书、枢密之后的二品级。从出土西夏佛经、黑土城文献、及宁夏博物馆藏品对比,纸质二级。经文部份为佛说阿弥陀佛经引守礼赞部分,引首最后一折为三龙功德碑,典型的西夏王朝刻字司版刻印,弥足珍贵!

    首版画五个折页,布局满当,服饰线条流美; 西夏经文五个折页,尾附双龙纹金刚座经牌。西夏文献多出土残件,此板经文五折完整,难得。又西夏坛城一件,有跋,不见公藏。

    CNY 350,000–550,000

    The illustration of Buddha teaching (《説法圖》) and the empty paizi (空白祝赞牌) are exactly the same as those found at the start of some volumes of 《大方廣佛華嚴經》(𘜶𗣼𗾟𗢳𗤻𗡮𗖰𗚩) held at the National Library of China (B11·064–B11·127) [A B C]. I have not seen the mandala elsewhere.

    An implausible provenance is provided: Printed during the Northern Song, then brought over to Japan, where it was housed in the Nara Tōdaiji Temple until the Meiji Restoration, when it fell into the hands of Saigō Takamori (1828–1877) of the Kikuchi clan. There is a handwritten colophon in Chinese, but it is hard to read in the low resolution image.



    Qindao Rongde July 2018 Auction

    Auction House: Beijing Qindao Rongde International Auction Co.
    北京琴岛荣德国际拍卖有限公司
    Auction Title: 2018 Qindao Rongde Qingdao Summer Auction: Ancient rare books
    2018青岛之夏艺术品拍卖会 古籍善本
    Location: Mingjia Art Museum, Qingdao, Shandong
    青岛名家美术馆
    Date: 2018-07-20
    Tangut Lots: 1

    Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
    1134

    西夏刻经、写经残片

    西夏写本、刻本

    镜心 白麻纸

    尺寸不一

    4张附框

    拍品包括刻本两纸,一纸32.5×5cm,存一行十四字,四周双边,一纸12×7.5cm,存三行十九字; 写本两纸,一纸11.5×9.8cm,存五行二十七字,一纸13×10cm,存五行二十八字,西夏写本极少见,颇为珍贵。西夏,1038年至1227年,历经十帝,享国一百八十九年,被蒙古国灭国后文化遭受毁灭性打击,西夏人的语言也已失传,拍品虽仅存四纸,亦是西夏文化的重要标本,其珍自不待言。

    CNY 15,000

    See Sungari December 2017 Lot 1164 (top right fragment of Lot 1164 is not included in Lot 1301) and Rongbao December 2018 Lot 1301.



    Sungari November 2018 Auction

    Auction House: Sungari
    中贸圣佳国际拍卖有限公司
    Auction Title: 2018 Sungari Autumn Auction: Rare Books - Letters of Celebrities, Rubbings and Manuscripts
    2018秋季艺术品拍卖会 万卷——古籍善本专场
    Location: Beijing International Hotel Convention Center
    北京国际饭店会议中心
    Date: 2018-11-25
    Tangut Lots: 2 (catalogue)

    Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
    0554

    西夏文孤本 佛说金轮佛顶大威德炽盛光如来陀罗尼经

    西夏文刻本

    白麻纸

    15.5×7.2cm

    11页 折装

    西夏文刻本,经折装,存11折,每折6行,足行14字。折面高15.5厘米,宽7.2厘米左右。存经题及传译者题记,经题汉译“佛说金轮佛顶大威德炽盛光如来陀罗尼经”,题记汉译:“西天大般弥怛五明国师口拶也阿难捺 传,兰山智昭国师沙门德慧 译”。俄藏黑水城文献中存有此经写本、刻本各一件,另有汉文残本三件。俄藏西夏文本保存完整,刻本卷首前有“炽盛光佛说法图”版画,正文包括启请偈、陀罗尼经及诸星曜真言。诸星曜真言配有版画,采用上图下文方式排列。此本原文前亦当有“炽盛光佛说法图”版画,惜缺; 正文原文至少18折,诸星曜真言只存水星、木星、大阴星、大阳星真言,罗睺星、金星、计都星、土星、火星五曜真言及版画皆缺。然与俄藏本有两大不同:一是多出的传译者题记,为俄藏本所无,且为首次发现; 二是陀罗尼及诸星曜真言译音用字全然不同,皆与梵夏对音相合,当据梵文或藏文译出。正文其他内容多与俄藏本相同,偶有异文。此与俄藏《佛说金轮佛顶大威德炽盛光如来陀罗尼经》为同名陀罗尼经的异译本。

    CNY 100,000–200,000

    0555

    西夏文孤本 《金刚经》卷首诵持仪轨注

    西夏文写本

    白麻纸

    18×104cm

    1卷 卷子装

    西夏文写本长卷,长104厘米,高18厘米,行书。卷前缺文约十数字,卷尾完整,署写经人题记,汉译文:“发愿写者净信李大德”,李姓为西夏国姓,李大德或为皇室贵族。内容是对《金刚般若波罗蜜多经》卷首所附加之诵持仪轨的注解。存世汉文本《金刚般若波罗蜜多经》卷首所附加内容包括:《香赞》、《净口业真言》、《净身业真言》、《净意业真言》、《安土地真言》、《普供养真言》、《奉请八金刚》、《奉请四菩萨》、《发愿文》、《云何梵》、《开经偈》。西夏译本稍简略,排列顺序亦有所不同,具体包括:《净口业真言》、《安土地真言》、《普供养真言》、《奉请八金刚》、《奉请四菩萨》、《持经梵声》(云何梵)、《发愿文》(参见荒川慎太郎:《西夏文金刚经之研究》,中西印刷株式会社出版部 松香堂2014年)。此注文所注内容及排列顺序与此一致,注解详尽。《金刚经》注文的西夏文本在俄藏黑水城文件中发现有几种,目前所见皆为经文正文之注解,前所附诵持仪轨之注解此为首次所发现,为极其难得的西夏文献孤本。

    CNY 300,000–500,000



    Rongbao December 2018 Auction

    Auction House: Beijing Rongbao Auction Co. (Rong Bao Zhai)
    北京荣宝拍卖有限公司
    Auction Title: 2018 Rongbao Autumn Auction: Dunhuang manuscripts and Buddhist art
    2019秋季艺术品拍卖会 一念莲花开·敦煌写经及佛教艺术专场
    Location: Renaissance Beijing Capital Hotel
    北京富力万丽酒店
    Date: 2018-12-03
    Tangut Lots: 2

    Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
    1263

    13世纪 西夏文写本 《喜金刚现证如意宝》 手卷

    水墨纸本

    27×316cm

    卷长316cm,高27cm, 此卷西夏文所书《喜金刚现证如意宝》为存世孤本,元帝师八思巴著作西夏译本。据李若愚博士《西夏文(喜金刚现证如意宝)考释》一文考证:拍品为“元代帝师八思巴《喜金刚现证如意宝》上卷的西夏文译本,是一部修习喜金刚法的现正法本,内容由定始,止于出定部分诵咒定,卷末附有校定者提名,三行西夏文草书所作的修习法,以及抄写后核对的题记。”此三行西夏文草书在西夏文文献中极为罕见。本卷《喜金刚现证如意宝》不仅是迄今仅见的西夏译八思巴著作,也是迄今仅见的大致年代可靠的蒙元译本,对它的解读不仅能为研究藏传西夏文文献提供基本的资料,同时也为研究蒙元时期西夏移民的宗教思想提供了基本的历史数据,具体请参考李若愚博士一文。

    备注:本拍品符合国家文物局制定一级文物定级标准。

    CNY 3,000,000–4,500,000

    See Taihe Jiacheng June 2017 Lot 2368 and Poly June 2019 Lot 2743.

    Not Sold
    1301

    西夏文刻经残叶四片

    镜心 水刻本

    32×5cm; 30×8×3cm

    拍品包括刻本两纸,一纸32.5×5cm,存一行十四字,四周双边,一纸12×7.5cm,存三行十九字; 写本两纸,一纸11.5×9.8cm,存五行二十七字,一纸13×10cm,存五行二十八字,西夏写本极少见,颇为珍贵。西夏,1038年至1227年,历经十帝,享国一百八十九年,西夏王朝笃信佛教,中央政权设有僧众功德司、出家功德司、刻字司,列名于中书、枢密之后的二品级。被蒙古国灭国后文化遭受毁灭性打击,西夏人的语言也已失传,拍品虽仅存四纸,亦是西夏文化的重要标本,其珍自不待言。从俄罗斯收藏黑土城出土文献、及宁夏博物馆藏品对比如出一辙。

    CNY 10,000–20,000

    See Sungari December 2017 Lot 1164 and Qindao Rongde July 2018 Lot 1134.



    Lianghan May 2019 Auction

    Auction House: Jiangsu Lianghan Auction Co.
    江苏两汉拍卖有限公司
    Auction Title: 2019 Jiangsu Lianghan Silitang Suzhou Ancient Books Spring Auction: Ancient rare books
    江苏两汉·四礼堂苏州古籍善本春季拍卖会 古籍善本
    Location: Suzhou New Century Hotel
    苏州新世纪大酒店
    Date: 2019-05-12
    Tangut Lots: 1

    Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
    3311

    西夏文刻本《慈悲忏法》

    西夏刻本

    一折 纸本 单页

    25.3×10.3cm

    西夏文刻经传世极少,此幅西夏文刊刻精美,刷印清晰,且有佛像版画纹饰,颇为难得。

    CNY 12,000
    • 𗢰𘓩𗕾𗅾𗱔𘉒𗐱𗢳 = 南無拘那含牟尼佛
    • 𗢰𘓩𗡝𘛣𗢳 = 南無迦葉佛

    These two invocations occur at the start of every volume of 《慈悲道場懺罪法》 (as well as at the start of 《現在賢劫千佛名經》). Almost identical to the edition of 《慈悲道場懺罪法》 held at the National Library of China (e.g. B11·038).



    Taihe Jiacheng June 2019 Auction

    Auction House: Beijing Taihe Jiacheng Auction Co.
    北京泰和嘉成拍卖有限公司
    Auction Title: 2019 Taihe Jiacheng Spring Auction: Ancient rare books and antiquities
    2019年春季艺术品拍卖会 古籍善本·金石碑版
    Location: Beijing Great Wall Hotel
    北京长城饭店
    Date: 2019-06-02
    Tangut Lots: 13 (results)

    Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
    2506

    大夏国金刚幢师所传经(残片)

    13世纪刊本

    纸本

    26×23cm

    单页2张

    CNY 65,000–70,000

    Bottom image covers a section of the Mahāpratisarā-Mahāvidyārājñī dhāraṇī.

    Not Sold
    2507

    梁朝傅大士颂金刚经科判(残片)

    13世纪刊本

    纸本

    18×9.5cm

    单页1张3折

    CNY 65,000–70,000

    Lot 2507 and Sungari December 2017 Lot 1163 are undoubtedly parts of the same copy of the same text (see Lot 1163 for details).

    Not Sold
    2508

    瑜伽集要焰口施食仪等四种(残片)

    13世纪刊本

    纸本

    18×11cm; 28×11×2cm; 22×11cm; 12×11×4cm

    单页8张

    拍品包括,瑜伽集要焰口施食仪四页、大方广佛华严经两页、瑜伽集要救阿难陀罗尼焰口仪钒经一页、金光明最胜王经一页。

    CNY 200,000–250,000

    Includes Qishi November 2016 Lot 0545 and Lot 0546

    Cf. Debao November 2014 Lot 69 (seem to be parts of the same text).

    Not Sold
    2509

    西夏文写经(残片)

    13世纪写本

    纸本

    23×28cm

    单页1张

    宝珠纹。

    CNY 20,000–35,000

    CNY 23,000 (USD 3,330)
    2510

    西夏文写经(残片)

    13世纪写本

    纸本

    24×26cm

    单页1张

    CNY 40,000–45,000

    Not Sold
    2511

    祈愿文(残片)

    13世纪写本

    纸本

    13×28cm

    单页1张

    拍品书写用纸为藏文佛经页。

    CNY 30,000–35,000

    Not Sold
    2512

    修习供养法事优波提舍(残片)

    13世纪写本

    纸本

    18×16cm

    单页1张

    CNY 20,000–25,000

    CNY 23,000 (USD 3,330)
    2513

    绘佛像供养法(残片)

    13世纪写本

    纸本

    16×19cm

    单页1张

    CNY 20,000–25,000

    CNY 23,000 (USD 3,330)
    2514

    祈愿文(残片)

    13世纪写本

    纸本

    20×28cm

    单页1张

    CNY 30,000–35,000

    Not Sold
    2515

    尊胜佛母供养法(残片)

    13世纪写本

    纸本

    25×40cm

    单页1张

    拍品尾署“寅年三月”及书写人名。

    CNY 50,000–55,000

    Not Sold
    2516

    大般若波罗密多经(残片)

    13世纪写本

    纸本

    12×10cm; 20×18cm

    单页2张

    CNY 45,000–50,000

    Not Sold
    2517

    圣胜慧到彼岸功德宝集偈(残片)

    12世纪刊本

    纸本

    16×8cm

    单页4张4折

    此为12世纪下半叶西夏显密法师周慧海译自藏文本,夏仁宗皇帝再详勘本。

    CNY 120,000–150,000

    Not Sold
    2518

    大圣五公经(残片)

    13世纪写本

    纸本

    15×8.5cm

    折装1册

    拍品为著名的非正统道教经典,内容为讲述世界灾难的预言。西夏译本为首次发现,具有极高学术价值。其内容与传世明清印本差别很大。为民间宗教的典型代表。拍品后绘有“五公”的“印”(符)。此宗教创于五代时期,被历代统治者禁毁。早期文献未见。此残片的发现,则提供了13世纪的此门道早期原貌的详实物证。

    CNY 280,000–300,000

    CNY 402,500 (USD 58,282)


    Poly June 2019 Auction

    Auction House: Poly International Auction Co.
    北京保利国际拍卖有限公司
    Auction Title: 2019 Beijing Poly Spring Auction: Calligraphy of famous people
    北京保利2019春季拍卖会 名家书法夜场
    Location: Four Seasons Beijing
    北京四季酒店
    Date: 2019-06-04
    Tangut Lots: 1

    Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
    2743

    13世纪西夏文写本《喜金刚现证如意宝》 手卷

    水墨纸本

    27×405cm

    卷长405cm,高27cm, 此卷西夏文所书《喜金刚现证如意宝》为存世孤本,元帝师八思巴著作西夏译本。据李若愚博士《西夏文(喜金刚现证如意宝)考释》一文考证:拍品为「元代帝师八思巴《喜金刚现证如意宝》上卷的西夏文译本,是一部修习喜金刚法的现正法本,内容由定始,止于出定部分诵咒定,卷末附有校定者提名,三行西夏文草书所作的修习法,以及抄写后核对的题记。」此三行西夏文草书在西夏文文献中极为罕见。本卷《喜金刚现证如意宝》不仅是迄今仅见的西夏译八思巴著作,也是迄今仅见的大致年代可靠的蒙元译本,对它的解读不仅能为研究藏传西夏文文献提供基本的资料,同时也为研究蒙元时期西夏移民的宗教思想提供了基本的历史数据,具体请参考李若愚博士一文。

    本拍品符合国家文物局制定一级文物定级标准。

    CNY 3,000,000–4,000,000

    See Taihe Jiacheng June 2017 Lot 2368 and Rongbao December 2018 Lot 1263.

    Not Sold


    Sungari June 2019 Auction

    Auction House: Sungari
    中贸圣佳国际拍卖有限公司
    Auction Title: 2019 Sungari Spring Auction: Rare Books - Letters of Celebrities, Rubbings and Manuscripts
    2019春季艺术品拍卖会 万卷——名人信札 古籍善本专场
    Location: Beijing International Hotel Convention Center
    北京国际饭店会议中心
    Date: 2019-06-07
    Tangut Lots: 1 (catalogue)

    Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
    8305

    西夏文佛经零叶

    西夏文刻本

    黄麻纸

    尺寸不一

    5页

    CNY 75,000–80,000



    Boguzhai June 2019 Auction

    Auction House: Shanghai Boguzhai Auction Co.
    上海博古斋拍卖有限公司
    Auction Title: 2019 Boguzhai Spring Auction: ancient rare books
    2019年春季艺术品拍卖会 芸编菁华——古籍善本专场
    Location: Shanghai Grand Theatre
    上海大剧院
    Date: 2019-06-23
    Tangut Lots: 1

    Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
    1031

    西夏文佛经牌记及版画

    十三世纪左右西夏文刻本

    皮纸 二张

    尺寸不一

    本品为西夏文佛经牌记及版画,所用纸为特有皮纸,佛像刻印极具西域特色。西夏文佛经或有,但如拍品保存说法图版画及牌记者,颇罕见。

    说法图:版画主体基本完好,人物开相及佛光佛龛、袈裟等线条具有少数民族特色。整体构图繁缛有序,图正中上方镌西夏文七字。

    牌记:对开两面,每面中镌西夏文八字,边有龙纹装饰花边,富装饰性。

    参考数据:西夏历代诸王均崇信佛教,先后六次自中国请得佛经。随着儒、佛典籍的输入及西夏文字的创制,此国开始西夏文佛经的翻译及雕印。

    CNY 30,000

    Woodblock illustration of Buddha teaching headed 𗷅𗡝𗌮𗆐𗹙𘎪𘏚 (釋迦如來説法圖). Two dragon paizi with wishes for longevity for the Emperor and for the Empress Dowager and Empress:

    • 𗫈𗌮𘓺𘋨𗼃𘗽𗕑𗩟 = 如今皇帝聖壽萬歲
    • 𗕔𗺹𘓺𘜹𗹦𘗽𗏺𗳦 = 太后皇后壽與天齊

    The illustration is the same as the middle sheet of the woodblock illustration of Buddha teaching at the start of vol. 9 of the Compassionate Flower Sutra (𗈁𗤻𗖰𗚩 = Bēihuá Jīng 悲華經) held at the National Library of China (B11·049). The two paizi are the same as the middle two of four paizi that follow the illustration in the Compassionate Flower Sutra.



    Taihe Jiacheng October 2019 Auction

    Auction House: Beijing Taihe Jiacheng Auction Co.
    北京泰和嘉成拍卖有限公司
    Auction Title: 2019 Taihe Jiacheng Autumn Auction (2): Ancient documents
    2019年泰和嘉成常规拍卖会(二) 古籍文献专场
    Location: Beijing Capital Library
    北京首都图书馆
    Date: 2019-10-13
    Tangut Lots: 1 (results)

    Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
    2162

    西夏文资料

    西夏刊本

    绢本

    12×15.5cm

    单页2页

    此为绢本双面刊印在已知的西夏文献中罕见。

    CNY 48,000

    ⅓ of Sungari 2017 Lot 1150

    Not Sold
    2163

    西夏文资料

    西夏刊本

    绢本

    12×15.5cm

    单页2页

    CNY 48,000

    ⅓ of Sungari 2017 Lot 1150

    Not Sold
    2164

    西夏文资料

    西夏刊本

    绢本

    12×15.5cm

    单页2页

    CNY 48,000

    ⅓ of Sungari 2017 Lot 1150

    Not Sold


    Qindao Rongde November 2019 Auction

    Auction House: Beijing Qindao Rongde International Auction Co.
    北京琴岛荣德国际拍卖有限公司
    Auction Title: 2019 Qindao Rongde Autumn Auction: Ancient rare books
    2019年秋季艺术品拍卖会 古籍善本
    Location: Mingjia Art Museum, Qingdao, Shandong
    青岛名家美术馆
    Date: 2019-11-10
    Tangut Lots: 1

    Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
    3413

    西夏龙牌

    黄麻纸

    25×13cm

    十三世纪左右西夏文龙牌1折

    拍品为十三世纪左右西夏文龙牌一张,黄麻纸精印,四周有植物纹饰,中间刻西夏文共六字。西夏历代诸王均崇信佛教,先后六次自中国请得佛经。随着儒、佛典籍的输入及西夏文字的创制,此国开始西夏文佛经的翻译及雕印。

    CNY 2,500
    • 𗢰𘓩𗩴𗉣𗢳 = 南無善意佛

    Invocation to the Sumana Buddha, which occurs in 《慈悲道場懺罪法》卷五, 《慈悲道場懺罪法》卷七, 《現在賢劫千佛名經》, and 《過去莊嚴劫千佛名經》. This sheet is from an otherwise unknown edition of one of these texts.



    Rongbao December 2019 Auction

    Auction House: Beijing Rongbao Auction Co. (Rong Bao Zhai)
    北京荣宝拍卖有限公司
    Auction Title: 2019 Rongbao Autumn Auction: Dunhuang manuscripts and Buddhist art
    2019秋季艺术品拍卖会 一念莲花开·敦煌写经及佛教艺术专场
    Location: Renaissance Beijing Capital Hotel
    北京富力万丽酒店
    Date: 2019-12-01
    Tangut Lots: 1

    Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
    0878

    西夏乾道元年《现在贤劫千佛名经》版画

    25×23cm

    《现在贤劫千佛名经》,又名西夏译经图,夏惠宗乾道元年至大安十一年(1068-1085)刻本,下方左侧为西夏梁太后,右侧为西夏第三位皇帝,李秉常,最上方为西夏安全国师白智光,《译经图》系西夏文《现在贤劫千佛名经》卷首扉画。经折装,27×27厘米。此图形象地描绘了西夏译经的场面和皇太后、皇帝重视译经,亲临译场的生动情景。

    1917年在宁夏灵武县修城时发现了大量西夏文献,1929年国立北平图书馆(现国家图书馆)不惜重金购回这批西夏文献,共百余件。据档案记载,当时的国立北平图书馆以“此项经文从未见于著录,最为稀世之珍,亟应集中一处,供学者之研究”,不惜用去全年购书款的10%购买下来,由军人辗转运至北京。《现在贤劫千佛名经》就是那批用重金购回的文献之一。

    CNY 2,500

    This is the same as the "Buddhist Translators" woodblock illustration (27cm) at the start of the Thousand Names of the Buddha of the Present 𗌮𗫻𗾈𗑱𗡞𗢳𗦻𗖰𗚩 (現在賢劫千佛名經) [National Library of China B11·047], but clipped at the left and right sides, and with some loss along the bottom edge. Probably a fake, but it is difficult to tell without examining it in person.

    • Shǐ Jīnbō 史金波. "Xīxià Yìjīngtú jiě"《西夏譯經圖》解 [Explanation of the Western Xia Translators Picture]; in Wénxiàn 文献 1979.1: 215–219.

    Headings and labels:

    • 𗈪𘍞𗯝𗨫𘅫𘃡𗇋𗴴𘓳𗂧𘘚𗥻𘄡𘉍 = 都譯勾管作者安全國師白智光
    • 𗯝𗇋𘑨𗡼𘎆 = 譯者祐助相
    • 𗖠𗪙𗰗𗤁𘓐 = 僧俗十六人
    • 𘀏𗬢𘟛𗼑 = 北卻慧月
    • 𘕹𗹙𘉍 = 趙法光
    • 𗼨𗆟𗾟𘓞 = 嵬名廣願
    • 𗊺𗹙𗭼 = 昊法明
    • 𗊛𗾟𘄡 = 曹廣智
    • 𘄱𗩴𗖻 = 田善尊
    • 𗩿𘕼𘄡𘍞 = 西玉智園
    • 𗥡𗌰𘄡𗋑 = 魯布智雲
    • 𗴺𗃛𘞽𘓺𗨺𘜹 = 母梁氏皇太后 (Empress Dowager Liang)
    • 𘈷𗭼𘃸𘓺𘋨 = 子盛明皇帝 (Emperor Huizong of Western Xia, r. 1067–1086)

    Cf. Duoyunxuan December 2005 Lot 1957.



    Boguzhai December 2019 Auction

    Auction House: Shanghai Boguzhai Auction Co.
    上海博古斋拍卖有限公司
    Auction Title: 2019 Boguzhai Autumn Auction: ancient documents, paintings, and antiquities
    2019年秋季艺术品拍卖会 古籍文献·金石书画
    Location: Shanghai Grand Theatre
    上海大剧院
    Date: 2019-12-14
    Tangut Lots: 1

    Lot Image Auction Description / My Notes Estimate / Price Achieved
    1019

    西夏文刻本《慈悲道场忏法》

    早期西夏文刻本

    麻纸 二张

    26×12cm

    拍品西夏文佛经《慈悲道场忏法》二张,帘纹颇宽。参考数据:西夏历代诸王均崇信佛教,先后六次自中国请得佛经。随着儒、佛典籍的输入及西夏文字的创制,此国开始西夏文佛经的翻译及雕印。

    CNY 5,000



    Appendix I: Qing dynasty Prints

    The items listed below are supposedly Qing dynasty prints made from a repaired Western Xia woodblock that was obtained by a scholar in 1862, as explained in the inscription in cursive Chinese characters in the bottom centre panel (many thanks to Sven Osterkamp for helping with the reading). The small seal at the end of the inscription gives the Chinese family name Zhào 趙.

    去歲春,余偶得域外古版加勢至菩薩道影,惜其漫渙,遂出資鋟,版既成普施十方,永充供養。旹同治壬戌菊月既望後,百歲生謹識。

    Last year in the spring, I happened to obtain an ancient woodblock from foreign lands with the image of Bodhisattva Mahāsthāmaprāpta on it; unfortunately it was worn down, so I paid some money to recarve it, and when the woodblock is complete I will disseminate prints of it far and wide as an enduring offering. Dated following the full moon of the chrysanthemum month (9th month) of the rénxū cyclic year during the Tóngzhì era (i.e. 1st year of Tóngzhì era, 1862), respectfully recorded by the hundred year old scholar.

    Viacheslav Zaytsev has pointed out that the image is identical to the painting of Bodhisattva Mahāsthāmaprāpta in the collection of the Hermitage in St Petersburg, so there is a strong possibility that the prints are a modern forgery. It is also suspicious that three different examples of this print appeared at auction in less than two years.


    ХХ-2441. Bodhisattva Mahasthamaprapta - Dashichi


    The Tangut text on the print is transcribed below, and translated into Chinese.


    Tangut Inscriptions
    Position Tangut Text Chinese Translation
    Top Centre Top

    𘄡𗠁𗟶𗾟𗚉𘇚𗅲𗄭𗗯𗯿𘓺𗨺𘜹

    勝智廣禄治民集禮[德]盛皇太后

    Top Centre Bottom

    𗾈𘉐𗟶𗠁𗣼𘞂𘂀𘇚𗸯𗑗𘓺𘋨𗁣𘈈

    神功勝禄習德治庶仁浄皇帝謹施

    Top Right

    𗴢𗾤𘔚𗙏𗵒𘗁

    奉請赤聲金剛

    Top Left

    𗴢𗾤𗅆𗧹𗟥𗵒𘗁

    奉請定除災金剛

    Bottom Left

    𗼈𘚻𘋨 𘍞𘌽

    喜神帝 凡此

    Bottom Right

    𘓞𗄈𘐘𗟻𗇋

    發願令刻者


    The two rows on the top centre are the titles of Empress Dowager Liang and her son Emperor Chongzong (r. 1086–1139). They can be found at the start of the Tangut translation of the Ratna-megha-sūtra (𗢳𘎪𘏨𗼮𗖰𗚩 = Fóshuō bǎoyǔ jīng 佛説寶雨經) and elsewhere. However, in Empress Liang's title the character 𗣼 'virtue' is replaced by the character 𗗯 'dog', which may be because in the source text from which these titles have been copied the title of the reviled empress (who died in 1099) had been deliberately altered.

    The Text in the two columns at the sides are the 5th and 6th of the eight invocations in the preface to the Vajracchedikā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra (𗵒𘗁𘄒𘎑𘏞𗓽𗕥𗸰𗖰𗚩 = Jīngāng bōrě bōluómì jīng 金剛般若波羅蜜經). In the text on the right column the third character 𘔚 'red' is miswritten with 𘨊 on the right side.


    Table of Auctions
    Auction Lot Image Description Estimate (Price Achieved)
    Beijing Hanhai Auction Co.
    北京翰海拍卖有限公司
    2006-12-17
    1650

    西夏观音菩萨像

    清同治元年(1862)刊印

    1张 纸本

    67×33.3cm

    CNY 1,500–2,000

    This copy was put on sale again at the Shanghai Duoyunxuan auction in 2019 (Lot 1032).

    Poly International Auction Co.
    北京保利国际拍卖有限公司
    2007-06-02
    2619

    西夏佛像

    清同治年刻本

    3张 纸本

    尺寸不一

    CNY 2,000–4,000
    Beijing Dongfang Yidu Auction Co.
    北京东方艺都拍卖有限公司
    2007-12-16
    0210

    清 刻本西夏佛像

    纸本 镜心

    68×33cm

    Shanghai Duoyunxuan Auction Co.
    上海朵云轩拍卖有限公司
    2019-06-23
    1032

    西夏·观音像

    镜片 纸本

    67×32cm; 67×33.3cm

    署年:清同治元年(1862)刊印

    CNY 60,000–80,000

    Same copy as sold at the Beijing Hanhai auction in 2006 (Lot 1650), but a very different price!



    Appendix II: Early 20th-century Prints

    The items listed below were produced during the Republican period in the first half of the 20th century (1911–1949). There are two types of print, as shown below.


    Types of Print
    Type Position Tangut Text Chinese Translation
    A Top Right

    𗅆𘉍𘑗

    定光山

    Bottom Left

    𘓞𗄈𘐘𗟻𗇋𘄡𗭼𗂧𘘚𗁣𘈈

    發願令刻者智明國師謹施

    B Top Left

    𘀄𗋑𘑗

    瑞雲山

    Top Right

    𗌮𗆐𗿼𗌹𗉋𘑗𘄒𘎑𘙇𘎪

    如來禽獸集山般若所説


    Table of Auctions
    Auction Lot Image Description Estimate (Price Achieved)
    Shanghai Jiatai Auction Co.
    上海嘉泰拍卖有限公司
    2007-12-12
    1212

    西夏木刻佛像图

    西夏刻本

    单页一件 纸本

    34×73cm

    CNY 4,000–5,000

    Type A

    Shanghai Jiatai Auction Co.
    上海嘉泰拍卖有限公司
    2010-12-16
    0046

    西夏·佚名 绘诸佛全图

    元代刻本

    镜片 水墨纸本

    11×70cm

    CNY 20,000–30,000

    Type B

    Hosane
    上海泓盛
    2010-12-18
    2416

    西夏百寿图观音菩萨佛像素画两件,保存较好。

    CNY 100 (CNY 2,530)

    Type A and Type B

    Shanghai Honghai Commodity Auction Co.
    上海鸿海商品拍卖有限公司
    2011-03-30
    0088

    西夏文礼佛图 (一件) 镜片

    73×34cm

    CNY 5,000

    Type B

    Beijing Delongbao International Auction Co.
    北京德隆宝国际拍卖有限公司
    2012-04-21
    3651

    西夏人物版画

    旧绘刻本

    一页

    33*72.5cm

    拍品西夏文,拍品版画背景充实,佛像人物气质各异,形象万千。

    CNY 2,500

    Type B

    Hosane
    上海泓盛
    2014-07-18
    1052

    民国西夏文,佛所法国

    CNY 100 (CNY 1,035)

    Type B

    Beijing Dongfang Daguan International Auction Co.
    北京东方大观国际拍卖有限公司
    2017-06-03
    1269

    西夏造像 纸本

    34×72cm×2

    民国间印行

    1件

    CNY 1,000–2,000

    Type A and Type B

    Kyoto Zuiryu
    京都瑞龍株式会社
    2017-03-31
    0103

    12世纪 西夏文经书页

    68×35cm

    USD 1,000

    Type B

    USA Karenner International Auction Inc.
    美国卡伦纳国际拍卖有限公司
    2019-04-28
    1038

    西夏版画

    71.5×34.6cm

    SGD 210,000

    Type B

    The estimate is about USD 150,000 !!!



    Appendix III: Fakes

    The items listed below are obvious fakes. This is not a comprehensive list of fakes, and many more can be found on internet auction sites such as Yahoo! Japan Auctions. As a rule of thumb any Tangut or Khitan script written or printed on silk or wood (or inscribed on any object made of gold) is almost invariably a fake. For more Khitan fakes see my blog post on Fake Khitania.


    Wooden Slips
    Auction Lot Image Description Estimate
    Sino Art Auctioneers Ltd.
    淳浩拍賣有限公司
    2009-04-03
    0519

    西夏木简 (四片)

    40×5cm

    HKD 1,500–3,000
    Tokyo Chuo Auction
    東京中央オークション
    2016-02-29
    1031

    西夏文字断简一组

    木简

    尺寸不一

    此品为西夏文字断简,西夏文字业已失传,存世亦不多见,惟博物馆能见一二,如现藏于甘肃省博物馆『佛说观弥勒菩萨上升兜率天经(西夏)』、『蝴蝶装妙法莲华经(西夏)』,极为珍罕,更是文史考古之重要材料。

    JPY 5,000,000–5,500,000
    Yokohama International Auction
    橫濱國際拍賣
    2017-07-20
    2589

    西夏(1038-1227) 木制彩绘西夏之佛画 (十件一组)

    JPY 500,000–800,000
    Beijing Qindao Rongde International Auction Co.
    北京琴岛荣德国际拍卖有限公司
    2017-08-20
    2195

    西夏遗物

    西夏(1038-1227)木制彩绘

    10件 木制

    约28×6cm

    彩绘佛画下端为西夏文,或为经文,西夏是中国历史上由党项人在中国西北部建立的一个政权,历经一百八十九年,终被蒙古所灭,其文字随即消亡,所存文物亦极稀见。此经板历经仅近千年至今,虽为片羽,亦是西夏文明的重要遗物。

    CNY 20,000
    Tokyo Chuo Auction
    東京中央オークション
    2017-09-06
    4083

    西夏 文书筒

    长23.5cm; 宽4cm; 长23cm; 宽5cm

    JPY 500,000–600,000
    Po Yuen International Auction Co.
    宝源国际拍卖有限公司
    2017-11-30
    1234

    西夏文佛像木简 (共三十片)

    高24cm; 宽5cm

    HKD 25,000
    Yokohama International Auction
    橫濱國際拍賣
    2018-01-31
    3871

    木板彩绘佛画经

    JPY 200,000–350,000
    3872

    JPY 200,000–350,000
    3873

    唐代-西夏(618-1227) 木制彩绘佛画

    JPY 200,000–350,000
    3874

    唐代-西夏(618-1227) 木制彩绘生肖佛画

    JPY 200,000–350,000
    3875

    JPY 200,000–350,000
    Yokohama International Auction
    橫濱國際拍賣
    2018-04-24
    6095

    木版彩绘十二生肖佛画 十二幅

    JPY 150,000–250,000
    Tokyo Chuo Auction
    東京中央オークション
    2018-09-03
    1201

    敦煌出土 西夏木制彩绘佛画 (十枚)

    JPY 50,000–80,000
    1202

    敦煌出土 西夏木制彩绘佛画 (七枚)

    JPY 50,000–80,000
    Tokyo Chuo Auction
    東京中央オークション
    2020-08-10
    0483

    西夏 木制加彩佛像简

    JPY 100,000–150,000

    Others
    Auction Lot Image Description Estimate
    Shanghai Duoyunxuan Auction Co.
    上海朵云轩拍卖有限公司
    2005-12-30
    1957

    西夏文佛像版画 (一张)

    旧刊本

    藏经纸单片

    48.5×45.5cm

    此物实属罕见,疑为甘肃河西走廊之物,年代无考,佛像涵义高深。

    CNY 2,000–3,000

    This is a crude, simplified, cropped version of the "Buddhist Translators" woodblock illustration at the start of the Thousand Names of the Buddha of the Present 𗌮𗫻𗾈𗑱𗡞𗢳𗦻𗖰𗚩 (現在賢劫千佛名經) [National Library of China B11·047]. See also Rongbao December 2019 Lot 0878.

    The design is horizontally mirrored compared with the Buddhist Translators illustration, although the Tangut writing is not mirrored. The Tangut text is not easy to read as it is written with crude and often misformed or unidentifiable character forms. Each label has the same number of characters as the corresponding label in the Buddhist Translators illustration (see Lot 0878 for transcription), but the actual characters are completely different, and do not make much sense to me.

    Beijing Zhongpai International Auction Co.
    北京中拍国际拍卖有限公司
    2007-01-20
    0219

    西夏 佛典银卷

    共18页

    17×13cm

    银卷为四页装订起来的薄银片,卷面呈纵长方形,形似今天小十六开册页。银卷为右翻竖行读本,每页边框饰满缠枝花叶纹,右上角浮雕一尊佛、菩萨造像,每页造像不同。造像底部和左面,竖行刻写阳文西夏文,当为该页佛造像的名称、法号以及此佛(或菩萨)的特点与法力。浮雕造像以及文字均为模印,然后再凸面上略加修饰。造像刻工细腻、生动,文字遒劲有力,布局章法俨然。皮壳包浆自然。此件文物表现了西夏民族崇尚佛教的民族信仰,无论从创意还是到形式,都可称得上是十分罕见的佛教艺术品。

    文物局禁止此件拍品出境。

    CNY 200,000
    Beijing Zhongpai International Auction Co.
    北京中拍国际拍卖有限公司
    2007-08-26
    0159

    十二—十三世纪 西夏罗汉像绢画

    长55cm 宽43cm

    画面右侧为一西夏僧人,左侧为六列引个西夏文字,画面布局中字占了相当大的比例。该绢画色彩古朴,主体基本完整。

    CNY 300,000–400,000
    China Guardian Auctions
    中国嘉德国际拍卖有限公司
    2009-09-13
    3551

    西夏之大方广佛华严经卷七十四

    旧写本

    1盒1轴 纸本

    180*26cm

    CNY 48,000–68,000

    The image of this manuscript piece is too low resolution to be sure whether it is genuine or fake, but to me it looks more like a modern copy.

    Sungari
    中贸圣佳国际拍卖有限公司
    2011-04-29
    3299

    西夏 白描金刚度母唐卡

    46×31cm

    CNY 30,000–40,000
    Beijing huachen Auction Co.
    北京华辰拍卖有限公司
    2014-05-16
    0396

    西夏文写经

    (二十四开选四)

    册页 水墨纸本

    25×12.5cm×24

    CNY 38,000–48,000
    Chinese Yin Tong International Auction Company Limited
    香港中银通国际拍卖有限公司
    2014-05-25
    0335

    宋 银制西夏文佛经一函一册

    高7cm

    ZhongHongXin International Auction Co. (Sino Honesty Auctions)
    中鸿信国际拍卖有限公司
    2015-07-28
    2062

    西夏文佛经

    一册

    33.5×19cm

    CNY 28,000
    Shanghai Jiatai Auction Co.
    上海嘉泰拍卖有限公司
    2018-07-15
    0170

    清 狼毒纸西夏文佛画唐卡

    CNY 100,000–150,000


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